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California Indian Population and Reservations

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The civilized (self-supporting) Indians of California, counted in the general census, number 11,517, 5,902 males and 5,015 females, and are distributed as follows:

Alpine County, 224; Amador County, 58; Butte County, 319; Calaveras County, 77; Colusa County, 277; Del Norte County, 376; Eldorado County, 136; Fresno County, 347; Humboldt County, 1,379; Inyo County, 850; Kern County, 337; Lake County, 556; Lassen County, 335; Los Angeles County, 114; Marin County, 31; Mariposa County, 152; Mendocino County, 581; Merced County, 30; Modoc County, 499; Mono County, 368; Monterey County, 58; Nevada, County, 159; Placer County, 73; Plumas County, 374; Sacramento County, 40; San Benito County, 41; San Bernardino County, 399; San Diego County, 478; San Francisco County, 31; San Luis Obispo County, 47; Santa Barbara County, 73; ‘Shasta County, 693; Siskiyou County, 710; Sonoma County, 297; Tehama County, 101; Trinity County, 193; Tulare County, 178; Tuolumne County, 218; Ventura County, 91; Yolo County, 41; other counties, with 27 or less in each, 116.

Total Indian Population As Of June 1, 18001

Total16,624
Reservation Indians, not taxed. (not collated in the general census)5,064
Indians in prisons, not otherwise enumerated43
Indians off reservations, self-supporting and taxed (counted in the general census)517
Total6,258
Reservation Indians, not taxed5,064
Indians in prisons, not otherwise enumerated48
Other persons with Indians, not otherwise enumerated161

Indian Population of Reservations

Agency and ReservationTribeTotalMalesFemalesRation Indians
Total5,0642,5892,475175
Mission-Tule Consolidated agency4,4832,2952,18828
Round. Valley agency581294287147
Mission-Tule Consolidated agency4,4822,2952,18828
Hoopa Valley reservationHoopa408209250
Mission reservations (19 in number)a 2,6451,3461,20028
Tule River reservationTulo1628181
Yuma reservationYumab 1,208659540
Round Valley Agency
Round Valley reservation581294287147

Tribe, Stock, and Location of the Indians in California

TribesStockReservationAgency
Clear LakeYukianRound ValleyRound Valley
CoahuilaShoshoneanMissionMission Tule Consolidated
DieguenoYumanMissionMission Tule Consolidated
HealdsburgYukian
HunsatungAthapascanHupa (Hoops) ValleyHupa (Hoopa) Valley
HupaAthapascanHupa (Hoopa) ValleyHupa (Hoopa) Valley
Kawia (Cahuilla)ShoshoneanTule RiverMission Tule Consolidated
Kings RiverMariposanTule RiverMission Tule Consolidated
KlamathLutuamianKlamath RiverMission Tule Consolidated
KlamathLutuamianHupa (Hoopa) Valley
KlamathLutuamian
KoakanPujunanRound ValleyRound Valley
Little LakeYukianRound ValleyRound Valley
MiskutAthapascanHupa (Hoopa) ValleyHupa (Hoopa) Valley
Mission
CoahuilaShoshoneanMissionMission Tule Consolidated
DieguenoYumanMissionMission Tule Consolidated
Owongo (Owens River)
San Luis ReyShoshoneanMissionMission Tule Consolidated
SerranoShoshoneanMissionMission Tule Consolidated
MonncheShoshoneanTule River
Pitt RiverPalaihnihan
Pitt RiverPalaihnihanRound ValleyRound Valley
Potter ValleyKulanapan
Potter ValleyKulanapanRound ValleyRound Valley
RedwoodAthapascanHupa (Hoopa) ValleyHupa (Hoopa) Valley
RedwoodAthapascanRound ValleyRound Valley
SaiazAthapascanHupa (Hoopa) ValleyHupa (Hoopa) Valley
San Luis ReyShoshoneanMissionMission Tule Consolidated
SermunaltonAthapascanHupa (Hoopa) ValleyHupa (Hoopa) Valley
SerranoShoshoneanMissionMission Tule Consolidated
Smith RiverAthapascan
TejonMariposanTule RiverMission Tule Consolidated
TemekulaShoshoneanMissionMission Tule Consolidated
TishtanatanAthapascanHupa (Hoopa) Valley
Tule and TejonMariposanTule RiverMission Tule Consolidated
UkiahYukian
WailakkiAthapascanRound ValleyRound Valley
WichumneMariposanTule RiverMission Tule Consolidated
YukiYukianRound ValleyRound Valley
YumaYumanYumaMission Tule Consolidated

Round Valley Agency

The Concow, Little Lake, Pitt River, Potter Valley, Redwood, Tilde, Wylackie, and Nome Lackie bands have been on the Round Valley reservation since 1860.

The Concows came, from Butte County, Sierra Nevada Mountains. The Little Lakes, Potter Valleys, Redwoods, Ukies and Wylackies are natives of this county. The Pitt Rivers came from Lassen, Modoc, and Shasta Counties. The Nome Lackie Indians came from Tehama County. These were the locations of these Indians when discovered by Europeans,-T. F. Willsey, United States Indian agent

Mission-Tule Consolidated Agency

Hoopa Valley Reservation

The Hoopas are the only Indians on this reservation except 3 or 4 women of the Klamaths who have married natives here. They have no tradition that they, have ever lived elsewhere. Some of them even now locate the place where the first man lived, who came from the moon and established the Hoopas in this valley. Some years ago a small band of Hoopas who had lived some 15 miles from the agency were sent to the Round Valley reservation, but all of them have returned. Some of them are on this reservation now and some live outside of it.-Isaac A. Beers, United States Indian agent.

Mission Indians and Yuma and Tule River Reservations

Hoopa Valley Indian Children
Hoopa Valley Indian Children

For convenience, the Mission-Tule Consolidated Indian agencies located at Colton, at the junction of the Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe and the Southern Pacific railroads. The reservations under this agency are widely scattered. The Hoopa Valley reservation is in the northern portion of the state. The Yuma reservation is along the Colorado River, 200 miles southeast of Colton. The Yumas are of Yuman stock and are the aborigines of that region. They are the most primitive in manners and customs of all the California Indians.

The Tule River Indians are on a reservation 200 miles north, and are a remnant of the Tejon tribe of Mission Indians who were removed to that point by United States troops some 40 years ago from the western end of the Mohave desert, near the Tejon pass. All the other Indians belonging to the agency, including the Mission Indians on the 19 reservations, are of the original Coast Indians of California, and as their ancestors came under the influence of the teachings of the Roman Catholic Church at an early day, they are properly designated as Mission Indians. Their reservations are from 30 to 150 miles from the agency. The small tribes are so intermingled that it is almost impossible to remember more than a few of the original names, as, for instance, the Coahuilas, Dieguenos, Serranos, and San Luisenos. These are the only original tribal names. All except the Yumas and Tule River Indians are in San Bernardino and San Diego Counties, and have always been there. There is scarcely a pure blood of any tribe left.–Horatio N. Rust, United States Indian agent.

Enrollment Of The Mission Indians

Hoopa Valley Indian House (Squaw in Front)
Hoopa Valley Indian House (Squaw in Front)

At the census of 1800 an attempt was made to enumerate the Mission Indians by villages or tribes, and to note the number of the 4 principal bands. It was found to be impossible for any one to enumerate the different tribes or families of Mission Indians, for the reason that they had intermarried for so many years and had kept no records. Those enumerated as Cabezone’s band were called so because he had control over the Mission Indians living on the desert, and he refused to have them counted. The count was made, however, by an enumerator, who used a handful of shot for the purpose, transferring the shot from one pocket to the other as the Indians were assembled for a feast.

Except the Yumas, all of the Indians in the southern counties of California are called “Mission Indians”.

The Tule River (Mission Indians) reservation is in Tulare County. The Morengo, or Portero, near Banning, is in San Bernardino County. The Yuma reservation (Apache) is in San Diego County, as are all the rest of the 19 Mission reservations.

It was found impossible to give the population of each reserve, for the reason that it was necessary to enroll the Indians wherever they could be found, and they are migratory. At times there are 150 Mission Indians at Riverside, and they may belong to 5 or 6 reservations. A man may belong at Coahuila and his wife at Sabola, and so on.

Mission Indians and the 19 Mission Indian Reservations

California Missions with date of Founding
California Missions with date of Founding
Pala, founded in 1816, not shown

Mission Indians is the name of those Indians in California who lived under the charge of the Franciscan fathers at or near missions from and after 1760, the date of the founding of the mission of San Diego de Al mil a, at San Diego by Father Junipero. The term includes not only those who were under the care of the mission fathers, but is the name used to this day to designate the descendants of such Indians. The United States authorities, however, use it for or apply it to such Indians descended as above and living in the 3 southernmost counties of the state of California. They are grouped in 4 bands: the Coahuilas, Dieguenos, San Luisenos, and Serranos. Their residence about or attachment to a mission sometimes gave them a name: San Luisenos from San Luis Rey mission, and Dieguenos from San Diego mission.

Two recent censuses of these 4 bands are given as follows:

Bands18801885
Total2,9073,095
Coahuilas 675667
Dieguenos731855
San Luisenos1,1201,003
Serranos381481

These Indians are now on 19 reservations in California, set apart by the United States for their use, the smallest containing 80 acres, the largest 88,475 acres; in all a total of 182,315 acres. Only about 5,000 acres are tillable. These reservations and the Mission Indians are in charge of the United States Indian agent at Colton, California. Rations were issued to but 28 Mission Indians in 1890. They are self-supporting.

Population Of California Missions.-At several periods the population of the California Indian missions is variously stated. In 1842 De Mofras, gave the population of the missions at 4,450. This was after the secularization of the missions in 1833-1834.

In 1888 Hon. John D, C. Atkins, Commissioner of Indian Affairs, reported on the Mission Indians as follows:

They are divided among the several reservations (as near as elm be ascertained from the census reports) as follows:

Mission IndiansAcresNumberBand
Agua Caliente or Warner's Ranch170San Luis Rey
Agua Caliente60,870.8538Coahuila
Cabezone622.22186Coahuila
Capitan Grande17,340.5157Dieguenos
Coahuila16,660.52236Coahuila
Cosmit80.0059Dieguenos
Inaja100.00
Maronge or San Gorgunio88,475.32
Mesa Grande120.00111Dieguenos
Mission1,920.00
Pala160.0066San Luis Rey
Portrero12,164.36102Serranos
San Jucinto3,176.06176Serranos
San Luis Rey2,072.8145San Luis Rey
Syeuan640.0051Dieguenos
Tomecula3,200.00157Dieguenos
Torras630.00San Luis Rey
Village640.00
Village642.40

Where the band is left blank in the above table (6 reservations) it has been impossible, from the data at hand, to identify the band or tribe occupying the reservation.

The census reports for 1886 show the following villages of Indians not included within reservations, so far as appears from the records:

Indian VillagesNumberTribes
La Jolla130San Luis Rey
Rincon104San Luis Rey
San Ysidro60San Luis Rey
La Pueria87San Luis Rey
Pauma75San Luis Rey
El Norte60Coahuila
San Dieguito21Dieguenos
San Felipe73Dieguenos
La Poacha42San Luis Rey
Mesa23Dieguenos
Coyote87San Luis Rey
Ahuauga18San Luis Rey
La Puerto de la Cruz26San Luis Rey
San Margherita10San Luis Rey
San Jose27Dieguenos
San Pasqual48Dieguenos
Mataguay35Dieguenos
Los Cornejos80Dieguenos
Indians living at or near Pomona20Dieguenos
Riverside88Coahuila
San Diego99Dieguenos
San Bernardino203Serranos

The census of 1890 shows a total Mission Indian population of 2,645, including 167 of Cabezone’s band of wandering Mission Indians. The Mission Indian population on reservations in California in 1890 was 2,478. The map of these mission reservations gives the details.

Footnotes

  1. The self-supporting Indians taxed are included in the general census. The results of the special Indian census, to he added to the general census are: 


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