Arizona Indian Tribes
Bands of Apache occupied the Gila River region in Arizona
within historic times and periodically overran much of the territory of the
State. (See New Mexico.)
Significance of name unknown. See
Halchidhoma belonged to the Yuman branch of the Hokan linguistic stock and
are said to have spoken the same language as the Yuma tribe and to have
been closely connected also with the Maricopa.
Location. At various
points on the Colorado River near the mouth of the Gila. (See also
group of villages on or near the Colorado River, in California, more than 50 miles below the mouth of Bill Williams
Lagrimas de San Pedro, a group of
villages in the neighborhood of Asumpción.
San Antonio, in the same general location as Lagrimas but only 35 or
40 miles below the mouth of Bill Williams Fork.
Santa Coleta, a group of villages in
the same region as Asumpcién and Lagrimas de San Pedro.
History. The Halchidhoma
were probably encountered by Alarcon in 1540, though he does not mention
them. In 1604—5 Orate found them occupying eight villages on the Colorado
below the mouth of the Gila; Father Eusebio Kino in 1701—2 came upon them
above the Gila, and by Garces' time (1776) their villages were scattered
on both sides of the Colorado, beginning about 38 miles below Bill
Williams' Fork and extending the same distance downstream. Later they
moved farther north, along with the Kohuana, but were soon forced
downstream again by the Mohave and ultimately took refuge with the
Maricopa on Gila River, by whom they were ultimately absorbed.
Population. Mooney (1928)
estimates 3,000 in 1680, but this is evidently based on Garces' figure of
2,500 in 1776, which Kroeber (1920) believes much too high. Kroeber
suggests about 1,000 as of the year 1770.
Significance unknown. Also
spelled Jallicumay, Quigyuma, Tlalliguamayas,
Kikima(by Mason, 1940), and in various other ways. See
Signifying "blue (or green) water people," abbreviated
into Supai. Also called:
Walapai form of name.
Ka'nfna, Coconino, Cosnino, Kokonino, Zuni name said to have been borrowed from the Hopi and to signify "pinon nut
Nation of the Willows, so called by
Yabipai Jabesua, so called by Garces in 1776.
Havasupai belong to the Yuman branch of the Hokan linguistic stock, being
most closely connected with the Walapai, and next with the Yavapai.
occupy Cataract Canyon of the Colorado River, northwestern Arizona.
History. The nucleus of
the Havasupai Tribe is believed to have come from the Walapai. The Cosnino
caves on the upper Rio Verde, near the northern edge of Tonto Basin,
central Arizona, were named for them, from a traditional former occupancy.
Garces may have met some of these Indians in 1776, but definite notices of
them seem to be lacking until about the middle of the last century. Leroux
(1888) appears to have met one of this tribe in 1851, and since then they
have come increasingly to the knowledge of the Whites.
Population. Mooney (1928)
estimates about 300 Havasupai in 1680, but Spier (1928) believes this
figure somewhat too high. In 1869, 300 were reported; in 1902, 233; in
1905, 174; in 1910, 174; and in 1923, 184. In 1930, with the Walapai and
Yavapai, they numbered 646. In 1937 the number estimated was 208.
Contracted from their own name
H6pitu, "peaceful ones," or H6pitu-shinumu, "peaceful all people." See
unknown. Also given as Cajuenche, Cawina, and Quokim.
Connections. The Kohuana
belonged to the Yuman branch of the Hokan linguistic stock, spoke the
Cocopa dialect, and were also closely connected with the Halyikwamai.
Location. In 1775–76 the
Kohuana lived on the east bank of the Colorado River below the mouth of
the Gila, next to the Ilalyikwamai, their villages extending south to
about latitude 32°33' N., and into southern California, at about latitude
33°08' N., next to the eastern Diegueno. (See also Mexico.)
Merced, a group of rancherias in northeastern Baja
California, west of the Colorado and 4 leagues southwest of Santa Olalla, a
San Jacome, probably Cajuenche, near
the mountains, about latitude 33°8' N., in southern California.
San Sebastian, Cajuenche or Dieguefio,
in southern California, latitude 33°8' N., evidently at Salton Lake
History. The Kohuana are
the Coana mentioned by Hernando de Alarc6n, who ascended the Colorado
River in 1540. Juan de Onate visited them in 1604-5, and they are probably
the Cutganas of Kino (1701-2), while Francisco Games in 1776 reported that
they were numerous and at enmity with the Cocopa. From Mohave tradition,
it appears that at a somewhat later period they lived along the river near
Parker together with the Halchidhoma, whom they followed to the fertile
bottom lands higher up. Later the Mohave crowded them southward but still
later compelled them to return to the ?Mohave country where they remained
for 5 years. At the end of that period they determined to go downstream
again to live with the Yuma; but, one of their number having been killed
by the Yuma, they joined the Maricopa, with whom they ultimately became
Population. Mooney (1928)
estimates that there were 3,000 Kohuana in 1680, the figure given by Games
in 1775-76. Kroeber (1920) believes these estimates are too high. In 1851
Bartlett re-ported 10 of this tribe living with the Maricopa, and,
according to a Mohave informant of Kroeber's, there were 36 about 1883.
Significance of the name unknown. See
From a native word "hamakhava,"
referring to the Needles and signifying "three
Navaho occupied part of the northeastern section of
southern or true Paiute occupied or hunted over some
of the northern most sections of Arizona. (See
Signifying "bean people," from the native words paphh, "beans," and
Signifying "no" in the Nevome
dialect and incorrectly applied through
mis-understanding by the early missionaries. See
Significance unknown. Also spelled Kohatk.
Quahatika belonged to the Piman division of the Uto-Aztecan stock, and
were most closely related to the Pima, of which tribe they are said to
have been a branch.
Location. In the desert
of southern Arizona, 50 miles south of the Gila River.
Villages. The chief
Quahatika settlement is Quijotoa, in the western part of Pima County,
southern Arizona. Early in the eighteenth century they are said to have
shared the village of Aquitun with the Pima. (See
history of the Quahatika has, in.the main, been parallel with that of the
Pima and Papago (q. v.). They are said to have left Aquitun about 1800,
and to have introduced cattle among the Pima from the Mexicans about 1820.
Population. The Quahatika
seem to have been enumerated with the Pima.
Significance unknown. Also called: Rsársavinâ,
Pima name, signifying "spotted." See
has been applied to a number of distinct groups of
Apache and Yuman peoples. It is said to have been given
to a mixture of Yavapai, Yuma, and Maricopa, with some Pinaleno Apache, placed on the
Verde River Reservation, Ariz., in 1873, and transferred to the San Carlos
Reservation in 1875; also to a body of Indians, descended mostly from
Yavapai men and Pinaleno women. (See
From the native word Xawálapáiy',
"pine-tree folk" (fide J. P. Harrington.) See
to the Handbook of American Indians (Hodge, 1907, 1910),
from enyaéva, "sun,"
and pai, "people," and thus signifying "people of the
sun," but the southeastern Yavapai interpreted it to
mean "crooked-mouth people," that is, a "sulky" people
who do not agree with other peoples (fide Gifford,
be an old Pima and Papago term for this tribe and in
some cases the Kamia and Maricopa also (Forde, 1931).
Notes About the Book:
Source: The Indian Tribes of North America, by John R. Swanton, 1953, Bureau of
American Ethnology, Bulletin 145, US Government Printing Office, Washington DC.
Online Publication: The manuscript was scanned and then ocr'd. Minimal editing
has been done, and readers can and should expect some errors in the textual