One of the most numerous branches of Athabascan stock are the Apaches, a fierce, nomadic nation, roaming over the Territories of New Mexico and Arizona, and Sonora and Chihuahua. Always a scourge and a terror to settlers, they have held in check for many years the civilization of the country covered by their depredations. In 1831 Gregg wrote of them: “They are the most extensive and powerful, and yet the most vagrant, of all the savage nations that inhabit the interior of Northern Mexico. They are supposed to number 15,000 souls, although they are subdivided into various petty bands and are scattered over an immense tract of country. They never construct houses, but live in the ordinary wigwam or tent of skins and blankets. They manufacture nothing, cultivate nothing. They seldom resort to the chase, as their country is destitute of game, but seem to depend entirely upon pillage for the sup port of their immense population, at least 2,000 of which are warriors.”
Steadily resisting all attempts at conversion from the missionaries, they gathered about them many of the disaffected tribes and made frequent descents upon missions and towns, ravaging, destroying, and completely depopulating many of them. Since the annexation of their territory to the United States they have caused much trouble, and an almost constant war fare has been kept up against them until quite recently. Successful military campaigns broke up their predatory habits, and since then the efforts which have been made to gather them upon reservations, where they could be cared for until capable of self-sustenance, are proving entirely successful. At the present time more than half the whole nation are on the San Carlos reservation in Arizona, where they have nearly 4,000 square miles, or over 2,500,000 acres, situated upon both sides of the Bio Gila, between the one hundred and ninth and one hundred and eleventh meridians, 400 acres of which are now under cultivation by Indian labor entirely, producing 10,000 bushels of potatoes, 2,000 bushels of corn, and large quantities of other vegetables. They draw their entire subsistence from the Government, but only in return for labor performed, and under this law are doing much good in the way of making and repairing irrigating-ditches, clearing and fencing land, &c. Are now occupying 223 comfortable houses, built for them. “When it is considered that only 2,000 of these Indians have been on the reservation two years, most of whom were participants in the outbreaks of last year (1874); that the 1,400 Ponto, Yuma, and Mohave Apaches from Verde arrived in March last; and that the 1,800 Coyoteros from White Mountain agency arrived July last, after harvest, the above figures will be found a most striking exhibit of the results of the application of a firm control and common-sense treatment for one year.”
Besides the San Carlos reservation in Arizona, there are two others in New Mexico, upon which are gathered most of the rest of the Apaches, with the exception of about 650 in the Indian Territory.
The Mescalero reservation, midway between the Rio Grande and the Pecos, contains some 570,000 acres, upon which are the Mescalero and some other smaller bands, to the number of about 1,100. But little has been done in the way of civilizing them, and they depend almost entirely upon the Government for their subsistence.
The Jicarilla reservation, intended for the sub- tribe of that name, is of about the same dimensions as that of the Mescalero, and lies between the San Juan River and the northern boundary-line of New Mexico. The Jicarilla, who number about 1,000, have not as yet been placed upon this reserve, but roam at will over the surrounding country, spending much of their time with the southern Ute, with whom they have intermarried to a considerable extent. They draw a portion of their subsistence from the Government and depend upon their own resources for the rest.
The Annual Report of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs for 1875 subdivides and enumerates the Apaches as follows:
|Miembre, Mogollon, and Coyoteros classed together||490|
List of illustrations.
853. Eskiminzin. Final
Height, 5 feet 8 inches; circumference of head, 22¼ inches; circumference of chest, 37 inches; age, 38 years. Head chief of San Carlos reservation and of the Final Apaches. His family was among those slain at the Camp Grant massacre in 1871. Is now taking the lead in living a civilized life, having taken up a farm on the San Carlos River.
854. Eskiminzin and Wife. Final
855. Cassadora. A hunter. Final
Height, 5 feet 8½ inches; circumference of head, 23 inches; circumference of chest, 40 inches. Petty chief; was one of the most lawless and intractable of the tribe. Took part in the assault on a wagon-train in the Cañon Dolores in 1872.
856. Cassadora and Wife. Final
857. Eskinilay. Final
Height, 5 feet 2 inches; circumference of head, 22 inches; circumference of chest, 35 inches. A captain of the reservation police.
858. Eskinilay and Wife. Final
860. Chiquito. Final
Height, 5 feet 5 inches; circumference of head, 23 inches; circumference of chest, 36 inches. A petty chief.
861. Chiquito and Wife. Final
362. Saygully. Final.
Height, 5 feet 7¼ inches; circumference of head, 22¼ inches; circumference of chest, 36 inches.
863. Eskayelah. Coyotero
Height, 5 feet 11 inches; circumference of head, 23 inches; circumference of chest, 36½ inches. An hereditary head chief of the Coyotero Apaches.
864. Skellegunney. Coyotero.
Height, 5 feet 8½ inches; circumference of head, 22½ inches; circumference of chest, 36½ inches. Is looked upon as being a hard case, and has the reputation of being a great horse-stealer.
865. Cullah Chiricahua
Height, 5 feet 6¼ inches; circumference of head, 22 inches; circumference of chest, 35½ inches.
866. Hautushnehay. Final
Height, 5 feet 9 inches; circumference of head, 23 inches; circumference of chest, 36½ inches. One of the reservation policemen appointed by the agent.
867. Napasgingush. Final
Height, 5 feet 61 inches; circumference of head, 21½ inches; circumference of chest, 34½ inches.
868. Cushshashado. Final
Height, 5 feet 3¼ inches; circumference of head, 22 inches; circumference of chest, 33 inches. A clerk in the trader’s store on the San Carlos reservation; speaks English fluently.
869. Pinal. Coyotero
Height, 5 feet 3¼ inches; circumference of head, 21¾ inches; circumference of chest, 37 inches. A sub-chief.
870. Passalah. Final
Height, 5 feet 11 J inches; circumference of head, 23 inches; circumference of chest, 37½ inches. A reservation policeman.
871. Marijildo Grijalva.
Interpreter. A native of Sonora, Mexico. Was captured when quite young by the Coyotero Apaches, and held by them in captivity until looked upon as one of the tribe.
1. Eskel-Ta-Sala. (Front.) Coyotero
2. Eskel-Ta-Sala. (Side.) Coyotero
3. Santo. (Front.) Coyotero
4. Santo. (Side.) Coyotero
5. Ta-Ho. Equestrian. (Front.) Essa-Queta
6. Ta-Ho. Equestrian. (Side.) Essa-Queta
A sub-chief of his band. Age, about 50 years; height, 5 feet, 11 inches; circumference of head, 23 inches; chest, 45 inches.
7. Gray Eagle. (Front.) Essa-Queta
8. Gray Eagle. (Side.) Essa-Queta
9. Captain. (Front.) Essa-Queta
10. Captain. (Side.) Essa-Queta
Age, about 56 years; height, 5 feet 8 inches; circumference of head, 24 inches: chest, 37 inches.
11. Pacer. (Front.) Essa-Queta
12. Pacer. (Side.) Essa-Queta
Was the acknowledged leader of the Apaches in the Indian Territory, and at the same time friendly to the whites. He and his squaw are now both dead.
13. Pacer’s Squaw. (Front) Essa-Queta
14. Pacer’s Squaw. (Side.) Essa-Queta
451. Kle-Zheh. Jicarilla
449. Guachinito. One who Dresses in Indian Clothes. Jicarilla
753, 442. Guerito. The Man with Yellow Hair. Jicarilla
A young chief of the Jicarilla Apaches, and a son of old Guero, their principal chief. This tribe is intermarried with the Ute, and has always been on friendly terms with them. Young Guerito was sent to Washing ton in 1873, joining the Ute delegation, for the purpose of effecting some treaty whereby these Apaches might have set apart for them a piece of land of their own to cultivate, as now they roam on Ute land and have no home they can call their own. He is a relative of Ouray, the great chief of the Ute, arid through the latter’s influence some such arrangement was effected. Guerito is a quiet and peaceable young man, a representative of his tribe, who prefer farming, and shrink from all wars against either Indians or white men.
444. Son of Guerito. Jicarilla
443, 5, 6, 8. Young Braves. Jicarilla
447. Pah-Yeh, Or Hosea Martin. Jicarilla
18. Son of Vicenti. Jicarilla
125. Pedro Scradilicto. (Front.) Coyoteros
126. Pedro Scradilicto. (Side.) Coyoteros
127. Es-Cha-Pa. The One-Eyed. (Front.) Coyoteros
652. Es-Cha-Pa. The One-Eyed. (Side.) Coyoteros
414. Jose Pocati. (Front.) Yuma
415. Jose Pocati. (Side.) Yuma
749. Charlie Arriwawa. (Front.) Mohave
750. Charlie Arriwawa. (Side.) Mohave
872-3. Groups comprising all the above included within the Nos. 853-871.