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Algonquian Language

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Algonquian Words

1. Substantives

Spiritual and Human Existence: Terms of Consanguinity: Names of Parts of the Human Frame.

1. God Manitoo Gen. xxiv. 26
2. Devil Mannitoosh  Job i. 7.  Chepian. Life of Eliot, p. 97
3.Angel English employed.
4. Man Wosketomp
5. Woman Mittomwossis Gen. xxiv. 8. Job xxi. 9.
6. Boy Mukkutchouks Job iii. 5
7. Girl, or maid Nunksqua Gen. xvi. 24. Luke viii. 54. Ps. clviii. 12
8. Virgin1
Penomp Gen. xxiv. 16. Job xxxiii. 4. Isa. vii. 14. Mat. i. 23
9. Infant, or child Mukkie Gen. xxv. 22. Job xxxiii. 25
10. Father, my Noosh Gen. xxii. 7. Luke x. 21
11. Mother Nokas Song of Sol. iii. 4
12. Husband Munumayenok Gen. xxx. 15
13. Wife Nunaumonittumwos Job xxxi. 10
14. Son Nunaumon Gen. xxiv. 6
15. Daughter Nuttanis Mat. ix. 22
16. Brother Nemetat Song of Sol. xiii. 1
17. Sister Nummissis. Netompas Song of Sol. iv. 9
18. An Indian
19. A white man
20. Head Uppuhkuk Mark xiv. 3. Song of Sol. v. 2
21. Hair Meesunk Lev. xi. 41. Ps. Ixix. 4. Mat. x. 30
22. Face Wuskesuk Prov. xxvii. 20, xxx. 10
23. Scalp Qanonuhque Ps. lxviii. 21
24. Ear Mehtauog Job xxix. 11. Plu. in og.
25. Eye Wuskesuk Job xxviii. 10
26. Nose Mutchan Job iii. 21. Isa. xxxvii. 29
27. Mouth Uttoon Job xxix. 9, xxxiii. 2, xl. 4
28. Tongue Weenau Job xli. 1. Prov. x. 20
29. Tooth Weepit Job xxix. 17
30. Beard Weeshittooun Lev. xiii. 30. Isa. vii. 20.
31. Neck Kussittspuk Song of Sol. iv. 4. Isa. xlvii. 4
32. Arm Kuppitanit Song of Sol. vii. 6
33. Shoulder Wuttukeit Isa. xi. 4, 6
34. Back Uppusq Isa. 1. 6. Uppusqantoonk. Prov. xxvi. 3
35. Hand Nutcheg  Job ii. 5
36. Finger Muhpuhkukquaitch Dan. v. 5
37. Nail Wuhkoss Dan. iv. 33. Wuhkas. Deut. xxi. 12.
38. Breast Wohpannog Lev. vii. 30
39. Body Nuhog Luke xx. 19. Mark xiv. 22. My in N
40. Leg Wuhkont Song of Sol. v. 15. Plu. in ash. Prov. xxvi. 7
41. Navel Wenwe Song of Sol. vii. 2
42. Thigh Wehquaosh Dan. ii. 32
43. Knee Mukkuttog Job iv. 4. Plu. in og
44. Foot Wuseet Rev. x. 2
45. Toe Ketuhquasit Lev. xiv. 25
46. Heel Wogquan Jer. xiii. 22. Plu. in ash. Gen. in. 15, xxv. 26
47. Bone Kon Job xxx. 30, xxxi. 22
48. Heart Uttah Job xxxi. 7. Metah. Prov. xxvii. 23.
49. Liver Wusquenit Lev. iii. 4, ix. 19. Wusqun. Prov. vii. 23
50. Windpipe
51. Stomach Wunnokus Job xxx. 27. Song of Sol. v. 14
52. Bladder Wishq
53. Blood Musque Acts ii. 19. Wusqueheonk. Lev. vii. 26
54. Vein Kutcheht Isa
55. Sinew Kutcheht Isa
56. Flesh  Weyaus Gen. xxvii. 3. Job xxiii. 21, 25, xxxiv. 15
57. Skin Natuhquab Job xxx. 30. My in N
58. Seat Posketteau. Isa. xx. 4. Buttocks
59. Ankle

War, Hunting and Traveling

60. Town Otan Josh. viii. 8
61. House Wekit Job i. 13
62. Door Squantam Job xxx. 9
63. Lodge Wunneepogqukkomukqut Lev. xxiii. 42
64. Chief Ketassoot Luke xxiii. 38. Song of Sol. iii. 9, 11
65. Warrior Aummenuhkesuenomoh Dan. iii. 20
66. Friend Netomp Luke xi. 5, 6
67. Enemy Matwamo Psalms Ixxiii. 21. Matwoh. Prov. xxvii. 6.
68. Kettle Ohkeék Job xli. 20
69. Arrow Kôhquodt Job xli. 26, 28. Isa. v. 28. I. Sam. xx. 20
70. Bow Ahtompeh II. Sam. i. 18
71. War-club
72. Spear Qunuhtug Job xli. 26, 29
73. Axe Togkuok I. Kings vi. 7
74. Gun2
75. Knife Quogwosh Josh. v. 2
76. Flint Qussukquanit Isa. v. 28
77. Boat Noonshoonun Acts xvii. 16
78. Ship Kuhtoonagqut Mark. iv. 36. Acts xx. 38. Prov. xxx. 19
79. Sail Omoquash Acts xvii. 17
80. Mast Sehoghonganuhtugquot xxiii. 24
81. Oar Hunkaueehteang Ezek. xxvii. 6
82. Paddle Wuttuhunk Deut. xxiii. 13

Costume and Decorations

83. Shoe Mukussin Luke x. 4
84. Legging Metas Dan. iii. 21. Plu. in ash
85. Coat Hogkooongash Lev. viii. 7. Mark. vi. 9.
86. Shirt
87. Breechcloth Ampauish Isa. xx. 2
88. Sash Uppetukquobpis Isa. xi. 5
89. Head-dress Wunasohquabesu II. Kings ix. 30
90. Pipe
91. Wampum
92. Tobacco
93. Shot-pouch

Astronomical and Meteorological Phenomena

94. Sky Kesukqut Rev. iv. 2
95. Heaven Kesukquash Gen. i. 8, 9. Josh. x. 13
96. Sun Nepauz Josi. x. 12
97. Moon Nanepauz Josh. x. 12, 13
98. Star Anogqs Job xxvi. 5. Gen. i. 16. Plu. in og.
99. Day Kesukod Gen. i. 5. Josh. x. 13. Job i. 18
100. Night Nukon Gen. i. 5. Tibukod. Isa, xxi. 11
101. Light Wequai Gen. i. 3. Habbakuk iii. 4. Isa. v. 20
102. Darkness Pohkenum Gen. i. 2. Isa. v. 20. Ex. x. 21
103. Morning Metompog Gen. i. 5. Isa. xiv. 12
104. Evening Wanunkwook Zeph. ii. 7. Gen. i. 5, 8, 13, 19, 23
105. Mid-day
106. Midnight Nouttipukok Acts xvi. 25. Ex. xi. 4
107. Early Nomponeu John xx. 1
108. Late Mannuchish Isa. xliv. 6
109. Spring Sontippog Mark xiii. 28
110. Summer Sequane Prov. xxvi. 1. Nepun. Gen. viii. 22. Prov. vi. 8
111. Autumn
112. Winter Popon Song of Sol. ii. 2
113. Year Kodtumog I. Sam. xxvii. 7, xxix. 3. Isa. xxix. 1
114. Wind Waban Isa. xvii. 13
115. Lightning Ukkutshaumun Ex. xix. 16, xx. 10. Dan. x. 6
116. Thunder Pahtuhquohan Ex. xix. 16, xx. 18
117. Rain Sokanon Job xxix. 23
118. Snow Koon Job xxvi. 1, vi. 16
119. Hail Kussegin Rev. xi, 19

Geographical Terms

120. Fire Nootae Isa. ix. 5
121. Water Nippe Prov. xxii. 19
122. Ice Kuppad  Job vi. 16
123. Earth Ohke Job xxxviii. 4
124. Sea Kehtahhanit Prov. xxx. 19
125. Lake Nepissepag Luke viii. 23, 33
126. River Sepu Job xxvii. 10. Seip. Gen. ii. 10
127. Spring Tohkekom Song of Sol. iv. 12, 15
128. Stream
129. Valley Ooneuhkoi Josh. viii. 11, x. 12
130. Hill Wudchuemes Isa. xli. 2
131. Mountain Wudchue Job xxxix. 8
132. Plain
133. Forest Mehtugquehkontu xliv. 14
134. Meadow Moquashqut Gen. xix. 17
135. Bog Neppissipagwash Isa. xiv. 23
136. Island Menohhannet Isa. xli. 1, 2

Metals and the Mineral Kingdom

137. Stone Qussuk Prov. xxvii. 3
138. Rock Qussuk
139. Silver
140. Copper
141. Iron Missechuag Prov. xxvii. 17
142. Lead Ma Muttattag Zach. v. 7, 8. Mahmuttattag
143. Gold

Horticulture and Agriculture

144. Maize, or corn
145. Wheat.
146. Oats
147. Potatoe
148. Turnip
149. Pea
150. Rye
151. Bean
152. Melon Monaskootasquash Lev. xi. 5
153. Squash
154. Barley

Botanical Terms and Vegetable Kingdom

155. Tree Mehtug Job xl. 21, 22, xv. 7
156. Log Uhtukq
157. Limb Wuttuk Zach. vi. 12. Isa. x. 39
158. Wood Uhtugquse Song of Sol. iii. 9
159. Post Nepattunkquon Isa. vi. 4. Post of a door
160. Stump Wequanunk Dan. iv. 15, 23, 26
161. Pine Qunonuhqua Isa. xiv. 8. Fir-tree
162. Oak Nootimes Isa. vi. 13, i. 30, xliv. 14
163. Ash Monunksoh Isa. xliv. 14
164. Elm
165. Basswood
166. Shrub
167. Leaf Oneep Isa. i. 30
168. Bark
169. Grass Moskehtti Gen. i. Prov. xxii. 25. Ex. vi. 10
170. Hay Moskehtu Isa. xlii. 4
171. Nettle Koussuk Isa. v. 6. Brier
172. Thistle Taskookau
173. Weed
174. Flower Peshaun Song of Sol. ii. 12
175. Rose Peshaun
176. Lily Peshaun Luke xx. 27. Mat. vi. 38

General Articles of Food

177. Bread Petukquannuk Job xxxiii. 20. Lev. xxiv. 5. Eccl. xi. 1
178. Indian-meal Nokehick Eliot s Life, p. 79, ed. of 1691
179. Flour Nọokkik I. Sam. xxviii. 24
180. Meat Weyaus. Meetsuonk Job xxxiv. 3
181. Fat Wees Lev. iii. 3

Native Quadrupeds

182. Beaver
183. Deer Ahtuh Song of Sol. ii. 9
184. Bison, or Buffalo
185. Bear Mosq. Prov. xvii. 12
186. Elk
187. Moose
188. Otter
189. Fox Wonkussiss Song of Sol. ii. 15. Dim. in emes. Plu. in og
190. Wolf Mukquooshim Isa. xlv. 25. Query plu. in im
191. Dog Anum I. Sam. ix. 8
192. Squirrel
193. Hare Ogkoshku Prov. xxx. 26. Coney
194. Lynx
195. Panther
196. Muskrat Mishahpohquas Isa. Ixvi. 17. Mouse. Lev. xi. 29
197. Mink
198. Fisher
199. Martin
200. Mole Mameechomit Lev. xi. 80
201. Polecat

Domestic Animals Introduced at the Discovery3

202. Hog
203. Horse
204. Cow
205. Sheep

Reptiles, Insects, Etc.

206. Turtle, or Tortoise Toonuppas Lev. xi. 29. Plu. in og
207. Toad Tinnogkooqus Ex. viii. 2. Plu. in og
208. Snake Askook Job xxvi. 13. Eccl. x. 2
209. Lizard
210. Worm Oohqua Isa. xiv. 11. Plu. in og
211. Insect Monitŏs Plu. in ug
212. Fly Ochaas
213. Wasp Amo Plu. in og
214. Ant Aununnekqs Prov. xxx. 25, vi. 6

Birds and Ornithology Generally

215. Bird Psukses Job xli. 5. Prov. xxvii. 8
216. Egg Woou Job vi. 6. Woan. Isa. x. 14. Deut. xx. 6
217. Feather Unnokon
218. Claw Ookossa Isa. v. 28. Dan. iv. 23
219. Beak
220. Wing Nuppohwun Isa. vi. 2
221. Goose
222. Duck
223. Swan Wequash Lev. xi. 18
224. Partridge Pohpohkussu I. Sam. xxvi. 20
225. Pigeon Nunneem Lev. xv. 6
226. Plover
227. Woodcock
228. Turkey
229. Crow Weenont Lev. xi. 15
230. Raven Konkontu Job xxxviii. 41. Song of Sol. v. 1. Gen. viii. 7
231. Robin
232. Eagle Wompisik Lev. xi. 13. Isa. xl. 31
233. Hawk Quanon Lev. xi. 16
234. Snipe
235. Owl Kookookhau Job xxx. 29. Isa. xiii. 21
236. Woodpecker

Fishes and Objects in Ichthyology

237. Fish Namohs Hab. i. 14. Luke xi. 11. Mat. xxxiv. 4
238. Trout
239. Bass
240. Sturgeon
241. Sunfish
242. Pike
243. Catfish
244. Perch
245. Sucker
246. Minnow
247. Fin Wapwekaneg Lev. xi. 10. Phi. in ig
248. Scale Wohhokgieg Lev. xi. 10. Plu. in ig
249. Roe

Algonquian Adjectives

In the Algonquin group of languages, the adjective is furnished with a transitive inflection, to denote the class of the object, of the quality of which it is intended to speak; and these transitive forms are the simplest, in which all words denoting the properties and qualities of bodies are orally found to exist. In that language, the two classes of objects which impose rules of construction upon the speaker, in the use of adjectives, are those possessing and those wanting life or vitality, The adjective roots or primitive forms of the adjective, are therefore always encumbered with a transitive inflection, to make certain to the hearer the precise class of objects spoken of. Thus, waub is the root-form of white. Ish or ishk, is a declarative particle, but if it be intended to describe a white person, the particle izzie is added; if a white inanimate substance, the particle is changed to au. Denote whether this mode or any analogous one exists in the language of which you furnish a vocabulary.

250. White Wompi Mat v. 36
251. Black Mooi Song of Sol. i. 5
252. Red Musqua Isa. Ixviii. 7
253. Green Ashkoshqui Song of Sol. v. 16
254. Blue Oonôag Ex. xxxix. 1, 2
255. Yellow Wesôag Ps. Ixviii. 13
256. Great Missi Luke x. 2
257. Small Peasi II. Sam. xii. 8. Hag. i. 9
258. Strong Menuhkesu II. Sam. iii. 1. John ii. 14
259. Weak Noochumwis II. Sam. iii. 1. Isa. xvi. 10
260. Old Kutchis Isa. xx. 4
261. Young Wuske Rev. v. 9. Lev. xxii. 20. Isa. vii. 21
262. Good Wunnegen Isa. v. 20. Gen. i. 4
263. Bad Matchet Isa. v. 20
264. Handsome Noonet Song of Sol. i. 14
265. Ugly
266. Alive Pamotog Luke xxiv. 5
267. Dead Nuppuk Luke xxiv. 5
268. Life Pemoantooonk Isa. xliii. 4. Sub. in onk
269. Death Nuppoonk Prov. vii. 27. Sub. in onk
270. Cold Kussopeu Rev. iii. 15
271. Cold Sonquesea Rev. iii. 15
272. Sour Seog Prov. x. 26
273. Sweet Weekon Eccl. xi. 7. Isa. v. 20
274. Pepper
275. Salt
276. Bitter Wesogk Rev. x. 10. Isa. v. 10

In giving these examples, the substantive forms, Nos. 268, 269, and 274, 275, are given in immediate connection with the adjective, for obvious reasons.

Pronouns, Personal and Relative

The genius of the Indian language, to which reference has been above made, which requires that adjectives should have a transitive inflection, also imposes a similar rule of transition on the pro nouns, which are perpetually required to show whether the class of objects to which they apply be animate or inanimate. It is the succedaneum for gender; and there is, as a consequence of so general a principle having been taken, no concord required in that class of languages, to denote the masculine and feminine. State whether the personal, relative, or demonstrative pronouns, be transitive or intransitive.

277. I Nen Job xxxiv. 33
278. Thou Ken  Josh. x. 12
279. He W
280 She W
281.  They
282 Ye Keneau Luke xxii. 20
283. We, including We, excluding
284. We, excluding the person addressed Nenawun Isa. xvi. 10
285. This person, or animate being
This object or thing (inanimate)
Yeuoh Mat. xxi. 10, 11
286. That person or animated being
That object or thing (inanimate)
287. These persons or animated beings
These objects or things (inanimate)
288. Those persons or animated beings
Those objects or things
289. All Wame Mark xiv. 29
290. Part
291. Who Howan Mat. xxi. 10. Luke viii. 45, 46
292. What
What person
What thing
293. Which person
Which thing

Adverbs

294. Near Pasoo Mark xiii. 28, 29
295. Far off Noondtit Isa. xlvi. 13, xlix. 1
296. Today Kesbukuk II. Kings xxviii. 6
297. Tomorrow Mohtompog I. Sam. xxxi. 8. Saup. Ex. viii. 10
298. Yesterday
299. By and by
300. Yes Nux Mat. xvii. 25
301. No Matta John. vii. 12. Mat. v. 37
302. Perhaps
303. Never
304. Forever Mitcheme Isa. xxvi. 4, xxxiv. 10. Mat. vi, 13

Prepositions and Prepositional Terms

305. Above Waabe Isa. vi. 2
306. Under
307. Within
308. Without
309. Something–n
310. Nothing n Matteag Luke xxii. 35. Isa. xl. 17
311. On Ohta Lev. viii. 30
312. In
313. By
314. Through
315. In the sky
316. On the tree
317. In the house
318. By the shore
319. Through the water

Verbs

The simplest form of the Indian verb which has been found orally to exist in the languages examined, is the third person singular, present tense, of the indicative mood. The infinitive is only to be established by dissection. If this rule prevails in the language known to you, the equivalents of the verbs to eat, to drink, &c., will be understood to mean, he eats, he drinks, &c., unless it be otherwise denoted.

320. To eat Meetch Job xxxi. 8. Mark viii. 2, 8
321. To drink Wuttat Isa. v. 22
322. To laugh Haha Eccl. 18, 12
323. To cry Mauoo Luke viii. 52. Eccl. iii. 4
324. To love Womon Song of Sol. ii. 9
325. To burn Chikosw Lev. iv. 12
326. To walk Papaum Zach. vi. 7
327. To run Kenoos  Zach. ii. 4
328. To see Naush Rev. vi. 3
329. To hear Noota Luke viii. 8. Gen. iii. 8
330. To speak Noowa Zach. ii. 4
331. To strike Nuttogkom Jer. xxi. 6
332. To think Mehquontam Isa. xlii. 18
333. To wish
334. To call Wehkom Isa. Iv. 5, 6
335. To live Kuppamantam Isa. xliii. 4
336. To go Monchek I. Sam. xxix. 10
337. To sing Nukketoo Isa. v. 1
338. To dance Pumukom Eccl. iii. 6
339. To die Nuppoo Gen. xxv. 8
340. To tie Upponam Ex. xxxix. 31
341. To kill Neshehteam Eccl. iii. 3
342. To embark

Participles

343. Eating
344. Drinking
345. Laughing
346. Crying

Substantive-Verb

347. To be, or to exist
348. You are
349. He is
350. I am that I am Nen Nuttinnien Nen Nuttinnien Ex. iii. 14
  1. Analogy and examples denote that there are no elementary participles in the aboriginal tongues, but that the sense of the equivalents generally returned, is, he (is) eating (is) drinking, &c.
  2. Conjugations are effected in the Indian languages, by tensal inflections of the pronouns and verbs. The entire absence of auxiliary verbs in the languages was observed at an early period. The Indian who is constantly in the habit of saying, I sick I well I glad I sorry was naturally supposed to speak a language, which, however rich in its inflections and power of description, had no word or radical particle to denote abstract existence. Such does not, however, appear to be the case in the Algonquin, from a scrutiny of some of the Scripture translations which have been received, and a comparison with their vocabularies. But the subject still requires examination. So far as can be judged, the term for abstract existence is of very limited use, and never, in any case, appears to be employed to express passion, emotion, suffering, or enjoyment. In this view, the forms No. 348, 349, are added. It is apprehended that no precise equivalent for 350 the test phrase proposed by Mr. Duponceau for the verb can be given. In the Algonquin, however, the phrase Nin dow iau Iaun has been rendered literally, I (the4 ) body I am. The whole question turning upon the primary meaning of the root-form IAU or IAH.5

Footnotes

  1. It must be evident, that if there be no equivalent for this word as contradistinguished from No. 7, there ran be no translation of Mat. i. 18, and the parallel passages of Luke, &c., which will convey to the Indian mind the doctrine of the mystery of the incarnation. 

  2. Here, and in most other cases where a blank occurs, there is no corresponding term to be found in the Bible. 

  3. Translations of these names are requested. 

  4. As there is no indefinite article in the -language, the [inclusive] term here is merely inferential. 

  5. The almost exact identity of the sound of this word with the Hebrew verb To Be, n in has not escaped notice. 


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