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Agreement of August 31, 1803
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Concluded August 31st, 1803, Between The Choctaw Nation And The United States.
To whom these presents shall come: Know ye, that the undersigned commissioners plenipotentiary of the United States of America, of the one part, and the whole Choctaw Nation of the other part, being duff authorized by the President of the United States, and by the chiefs and head men of said Nation, do hereby establish, in conformity to the convention of Fort Confederation, for the line of demarcation recognized in said convention, the following metes and bounds, viz: Beginning at the channel of the Hatched at the point where the line of limits between the United States and Spain crossed the same, thence up the channel of said river to the confluence of the Chickasaw-hay (corruption of Chikasahha) and Buckhatannee (corruption of Buchchah, a range of hills) and Hantah (to be bright) rivers, thence up the channel of the Buchhatannee to Boque Hooma (corruption of Bokhumma, Red Creek, thence up said creek to a pine tree standing on the left bank of the same, and blazed on two of its sides, about twelve links southwest of an old trading path, leading from the town of Mobile to the Hewanee towns, much worn, but not in use at the present time. From this tree we find the following bearings and distances, viz: south 54 degrees 30 minutes west, one chain, one link, a black gum, north 39 degrees east, one chain, 75 links, water oak; thence with the old British line of partition in its various inflections to a mulberry post, planted on the right bank of the main branch of Sintee Bogue, (cor. of Sinti Bok and pro. as Seen-tih Boke, Snake Creek) where it makes a sharp turn to the south east, a large broken top cypress tree standing near the opposite bank of the creek, which is about three poles wide, thence down the said creek to the Tombigbee and Mobile rivers to the above mentioned line of limits between the United States and Spain, and with the same to the point of beginning; and we, the said commissioners plenipotentiary, do ratify and confirm the said line of demarcation, and do recognize and acknowledge the same to be the boundary which shall separate and distinguish the land ceded to the United States, between the Tombigbee, Mobile and Pascagola Rivers, from that which has hot been ceded by the said Choctaw Nation. (Tombigbee, corruption of Itombiikbi, Boxmaker; Mobile, corruption of Momabinah, A lodge for all; Pascagola, corruption of Puskaokla, Bread people). In testimony whereof, we hereunto affix our hands and seals, this 31st, day of August, 1803, to triplicates of this tenor and date. Done at Hoe-Buck-intoopa, (corruption of Hoburk, coward intakobi lazy) the day and year above written, and in the 27th year of the independence of the United States.
Corrupted: Mingo Pooscoos, his x mark; Original: Mikopuscus (pro. Mik-o Poos-koosh) Infant King.
Corrupted: Alatala Hooma, his x mark. Original: Alatalihhumma, (pro. Ar-lah-tah-lih hoom.mah.)
Witnesses present: Joseph Chambers, U. S. Factor.
Young Gaines, Interpreter,
John Bowyer, Capt. 2nd U. S. Regt.
We the commissioners of the Choctaw nation, duly appointed, and the chiefs of the said nation who reside on the Tombigbee River, next to Sintee Bogue, do acknowledge to have received from the United States of America, by the hand of Brigadier General, James Wilkerson, as a consideration in full for the confirmation of the above concession, the following articles, viz.; fifteen pieces of strands, three rifles, one hundred and fifty blankets, two hundred and fifty pounds of powder, two hundred and fifty pounds of lead, one bridle, and man s saddle, and one black silk handkerchief. (Thus we have an exhibition of the wonderful generosity expressed in the Governments reiterated “To give peace to all the Choctaw nation,” and the meaning of “and receive them into favor and protection of the United States of America,” Wonderful protection! to take advantage of their ignorance in the value of their lands, and disposes them of hundreds of thousands of acres for a few pounds of powder and lead, a few blankets, a saddle and bridle, and lastly though not least, “one black silk handkerchief.”
Mingo Pooscoos, his x mark.
Alatala Hooma, his x mark.
Commissioners of the Choctaw nation.
Corrupted: Pio Mingo, his x mark Original: Pin Miko. Our chief.
Corrupted: Pasa Mastubby Mingo, his x mark. Original: Pisahmiahubih Miko, (pro. Pe-sah-me-ah-ub-ih Miko. To see, go ahead and kill the chief.)
In November, 1805, another portion of their country was ceded to the United States; and in October, 1816, still another portion; and October 18, 1820, another portion was ceded for and in consideration of a tract of country west of the Mississippi river, being between the Arkansas and Red rivers, the lines of which were to be ascertained and distinctly marked, by commissioners for that purpose, to be accompanied by such persons as the Choctaws might select. Again, January 20th, 1825, they ceded another portion of their lands, east of the Mississippi river, to the United States. Then in September 1830, the climax of the white man’s greediness as far as the Choctaws were involved, was reached, by forcing that people to cede the last acre of land they possessed east of the Mississippi River. And thus by hypocrisy, deception, fraud, misrepresentation and unblushing falsehood, has the octopus arm of white avarice seized in its insatiable embrace the Indians country from Maine to California, until scarcely enough is left them upon which to eke out a miserable existence; and yet, year by year, generation by generation, the grasp widens and tightens, and creeps further and further upon them until with its stiff necked, incorrigible brutishness, its hissing is heard, throughout the length and breadth of the land, vibrating upon that harp of a thousand strings that still remains in tune to the same old howl “Open to white settlement, open up to white settlement.”
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