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Wichita Tribe

Wichita Indians, Wichita  Confederacy. A confederacy of Caddoan stock, closely related linguistically to the Pawnee, and formerly ranging from about the middle Arkansas river, Kansas, southward to Brazos river, Texas, of which general region they appear to be the aborigines; antedating the Comanche, Kiowa, Mescaleros, and Siouan tribes. They now reside in Caddo County, west Oklahoma, within the limits of the former Wichita Reservation. The name Wichita, by which they are commonly known, is of uncertain origin and etymology. They call themselves Kitikiti’sh (Kirikirish), a name also of uncertain meaning, but probably, like so many proper tribal names, implying preeminent men. They are known to the Siouan tribes as Black Pawnee (Paniwasaba, whence “Paniouassa,” etc.), to the early French traders as Pani Piqué, ‘Tattooed Pawnee,’ to the Kiowa and Comanche by names meaning ‘Tattooed Faces,’ and are designated in the sign language by a sign conveying the same meaning. They are also identifiable with the people of Quivira met by Coronado in 1541. The Ouachita living in east Louisiana in 1700 are a different people, although probably of the same stock. Among the tribes composing the confederacy, each of which probably spoke a slightly different dialect of the common language, we have the names of the Wichita proper (?), Tawehash (Tayovayas), Tawakoni (Tawakarchu), Waco, Yscani, Akwesh, Asidahetsh, Kishkat, Korishkitsu. A considerable parts of the Panimaha, or Skidi Pawnee, also appear to have lived with them about the middle of the 18th century, and in fact the Pawnee and Wichita tribes have almost always been on terms of close intimacy. It is possible that the Yscani of the earlier period...

Yatasi Tribe

Yatasi Indians. A tribe of the Caddo confederacy, closely affiliated in language with the Natchitoch. They are first spoken of by Tonti, who states that in 1690 their village was on Red river of Louisiana, north west of the Natchitoch, where they were living in company with the Natasi and Choye. Bienville and St Denys, during their Red river trip in 1701, made an alliance with the Yatasi and henceforward the tribe seems to have been true to the friendship then sealed. The road frequented by travelers from the Spanish province to the French settlements on Red River and at New Orleans passed near their village. During the disputes incident to the uncertain boundary line between the Spanish and the French possessions and to the Spanish restrictions on inter-trade, they proved their steadfastness to the French interests by refusing to comply with the Spanish demand to close the road. The Indians maintained that “the road had always been theirs” and that it should remain open. St Dent’s’ invitation to the various tribes dwelling in the vicinity of the post and fort established among the Natchitoch in 1712-14 to settle near by under his protection was opportune, for the Chickasaw were then waging war along Red river and the Yatasi were among the sufferers. A part of the tribe sought refuge with the Natchitoch, while others fled up the river to the Kadohadacho and to the Nanatsoho and the Nasoni. The wars of the l8th century and the introduction of new diseases, especially smallpox and measles, had such an effect on the Yatasi that by 1800, according to Sibley, they...

Nabedache Tribe

One of the 12 or more tribe, of the Hasinai, or southern Caddo confederacy. They spoke the common language of the group. Their main village stood for a century or more 3 or 4 leagues west of Neches river and near Arroyo San Pedro

Eyeish Tribe

Eyeish Indians. A tribe of the Caddo confederacy which spoke a dialect, now practically extinct, very different from the dialects of the other tribes; hence it is probable they were part of an older confederacy which was incorporated in the Caddo when the latter became dominant. The early home of  the tribe was on Eyeish Creek between the Sabine and Neches rivers of Texas.  Moscoso led the troops through their country in 1542, encountering herds of buffalo. From the statements of Joutel and Douay, the Eyeish were not on good terms with the tribes west of them on the Trinity, nor with those on Red river in the north at the time the French entered their country late in the 17th century; but, judging from the confusion of names by early writers, it is likely that only some of the subdivisions or villages were represented in the war parties. The mission of Nuestra Señora de los Dolores was established among them by the Franciscans who accompanied Don Domingo Ramon on his tour in 1716-17. They were, however, very little amenable to Spanish influence, for after 50 years of missionary effort, the mission register showed, according to Solis1, only 11 baptisms, 7 interments, and 3 marriages performed at the mission, although the tribe had not been backward in receiving material aid from the missionaries. Solis reported in 1768 that this tribe was the worst in Texas: drunken, thievish, licentious, impervious to religious influence, and dangerous to the missionaries. Their villages were not far from the road between the French post at Natchitoches and the Spanish post at Nacogdoches, and the...

Anadarko Tribe

Anadarko Indians (from Nädä´ko, their own name). A tribe of the Caddo confederacy whose dialect was spoken by the Kadohadacho, Hainai and Adai.  The earliest mention of the people is in the relation of Biedma (1544); who writes that Moscoso in 1542 led his men during their southward march through a province that lay east of the Anadarko.  The territory occupied by the tribe was southwest of the Kadohadacho.  Their villages were scattered along Trinity and Brazos Rivers, Texas, higher up than those of the Hainai, and do not seem to have been visited so early as theirs by the French.  A Spanish mission was established among the Anadarko early in the 18th century, but was soon abandoned. La Harpe reached an Anadarko village in 1719, and was kindly received. The people shared in the general friendliness for the French. During the contentions of the latter with the Spaniards and later with the English, throughout the 18th century, the Anadarko suffered greatly. They became embroiled in tribal wars; their villages were abandoned; and those who survived the havoc of war and the new diseases brought into the country by the white people were forced to seek shelter and safety with their kindred toward the north east. In 1812 a village of 40 men and 200 souls was reported on Sabine River. The Anadarko lived in villages, having fixed habitations similar to those of the other tribes of the Caddo confederacy, to whom they were evidently also similar in customs, beliefs, and clan organization. Nothing is known definitely of the subdivisions of the tribe, but that such existed is probable...

Caddo Geographical Location

The remnants of the Caddo confederacies of northwestern Louisiana and northeastern Texas settled in Oklahoma in 1859. After the Louisiana  Purchase when Louisiana bands joined their tribesmen in Texas all lived there peaceably until some White Texans determined upon an indiscriminate massacre of raiding Comanche and of all Reservation Indians. The Caddo escaped by a forced march of two weeks in midsummer to the banks of the Washita River. Of this period White Moon talked as follows: Comanche and Kiowa would raid, up to the Caddo villages.1 The Texans trailed them and blamed the Caddo as well. The soldiers stood by the Caddo, said they would move them north where they would have no further trouble with Texans. Caddo were scouts for the United States army. Once a Kiowa wearing a corselet of hide from buffalo head and using medicine could not be killed. White soldiers shot at him, then a Caddo scout shot him in the back where the corselet raised up as he stooped. After the Caddo killed this fellow, the Kiowa became weak. Before the Territory was opened up and afterwards, there were violent doings among both Whites and Indians. My jitney driver and friend, Jim Blakeley, who was a sheriff in those early days, told me several grim stories, but the story I found most interesting was told by James Ingkanish to illustrate the prophetic power of a Coyote. Caiyute will tell you by his crying what is going to happen. My father was killed by outlaws in 1892. One time he was riding along and two caiyutes kep’ alongside, one on each side. They was crying....

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