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Antique Rock Citadel of Kienuka, in Lewiston, Niagara County, NY

In the preceding sketches, evidences have been presented of the readiness and good judgment of the aboriginal fort builders of western New York,1 in availing themselves of steeps, gulfs, defiles, and other marked localities, in establishing works for security or defense. This trait is, however, in no case more strikingly exemplified than in the curious antique work before us, which is called, by the Tuscaroras, Kienuka. The term Kienuka is said to mean the stronghold or fort, from which there is a sublime view. It is situated about three and a half or four miles eastward of the outlet of the Niagara gorge at Lewiston, on a natural escarpment of the ridge. This ridge, which rises in one massy, up-towering pile, almost perpendicularly, on the brink of the river, develops itself, as we follow its course eastward for a mile or two, in a second plateau, which holds nearly a medium position in relation to the altitude of the ridge. This plateau attains to a width of a thousand yards or more, extending an unexplored distance, in the curving manner of the ridge, towards Lockport. Geologically considered, its upper stratum is the silurean limestone, which in the order of superposition, immediately overlies the red shaly sandstone at the falls. Its edges are jagged and broken, and heavy portions of it have been broken off, and slid down the precipice of red shaly under grit, and thus assumed the character of debris. Over its top, there has been a thin deposit of pebble drift 3 of purely diluvial character, forming, in general, not a very rich soil, and supporting a...

Tuscarora Indians

Tuscarora Tribe, Tuscarora Confederacy: From their own name Skǎ-ru’-rěn, signifying according to Hewitt (in Hodge, 1910), “hemp gatherers,” and applied on account of the great use they made of Apocynum cannabinum. Also called: Ă-ko-t’ǎs’-kǎ-to’-rěn Mohawk name. Ani’-Skǎlǎ’lǐ, Cherokee name. Ă-t’ǎs-kǎ-lo’-lěn, Oneida name. Tewohomomy (or Keew-ahomomy), Saponi name. Tuscarora Connections. The Tuscarora belonged to the Iroquoian linguistic family. Tuscarora Location. On the Roanoke, Tar, Pamlico, and Neuse Rivers. (See also Pennsylvania and New York.) Tuscarora Subdivisions. The Tuscarora should be considered a confederacy with three tribes or a tribe with three subtribes as follows: Kǎ’tě’nu’ā’kā’, “People of the submerged pine tree”; Akawǎntca’kā’, meaning doubtful; and Skarū’rěn, “hemp gatherers,” i. e., the Tuscarora proper. Tuscarora Villages The following were in North Carolina, a more precise location not being possible except in the cases specified: Annaooka. Chunaneets. Cohunche. Conauhcare. Contahnah, near the mouth of Neuse River. Cotechney, on the opposite side of Neuse River from Fort Barnwell, about the mouth of Contentnea Creek. Coram. Corutra. Harooka. Harutawaqui. Kenta. Kentanuska. Naurheghne. Neoheroka, in Greene County. Nonawharitse. Nursoorooka. Oonossoora. Tasqui, a day’s journey from Cotechney on the way to Nottaway village. Tonarooka, on a branch of Neuse River between “Fort Narhantes” and Cotechney. Torhunte, on a northern affluent of Neuse River. Tosneoc. Ucouhnerunt, on Pamlico River, probably in the vicinity of Greenville, in Pitt County. Unanauhan. Later settlements in New York were these: Canasaraga, on Canaseraga Creek on the site of the present Sullivan. Ganatisgowa Ingaren. Junastriyo. Jutaneaga. Kanhats. Kaunehsuntahkeh. Nyuchirhaan, near Lewiston, Niagara County. Ohagi, on the west side of Genesee River a short distance below Cuylersviile, Livingston County. Oquaga, on the east...

Blakeslee, Caroline D. – Obituary

Caroline D. Blakeslee, age 90 years, 4 months and 22 days, died in La Grande Monday last, and the funeral took place from the Episcopal church, Union, Wednesday afternoon, the 30th inst. Mrs. Blakeslee was 90 years old, having been born in Lewiston, New York, September 6, 1827. She was married to Chas. L. Blakeslee, May 12, 1850, and lived in Battle Creek, Mich., until 1865, when they crossed the plains to Union, where she lived until 1910. Since that time she has loved with her daughter, Mrs. Oliver. Mr. Blakeslee passed away June 1, 1905. She is survived by one son, Dr. L. K. Blakeslee, of Pendleton, and two daughters, Mrs. W. A. Hall, of Union, and Mrs. J. R. Oliver, of La Grande. Funeral services were held in Union at the Episcopal church of which she was a member since 1869, having helped to organize the church at Union. January 28, 1918 Contributed by: Larry...

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