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Early Indian Wars in Florida

Previous to the permanent establishment of the English in North America, the French and Spaniards made many attempts to get possession of various parts of the country. The coasts were carefully explored, and colonies planted, but they were soon given up as expensive, and involving too much hardship and danger. The first expedition to the coast of Florida was made in 1512, by Juan Ponce de Leon, renowned for his courage and warlike abilities. Ponce de Leon, becoming governor of Porto Rico (Puerto Rico), and hearing from the Indians that there existed a beautiful and fertile country to the northward, containing the waters of perpetual youth, resolved to attempt its conquest. He sailed from Porto Rico with three ships, and finally, reached the continent at about eight degrees thirty minutes, north latitude. Landing on Palm Sunday, Ponce de Leon gave the country the name of Florida. He explored the coast from north to south, and had several engagements with the Indians; and though he failed to obtain the youth and treasures that he sought, he returned to Porto Rico, crowned with the luster of making a great discovery. The report of the achievements of Cortez in Mexico, again kindled the ambition of Ponce de Leon; and he set out in 1521, with two of his own ships, to make a settlement in Florida. But the Indians advanced against him; most of his men were killed, and himself so badly wounded, that he died a few days after his return to Cuba. Another expedition, under Vasquez de Ayllon, attempted to form a settlement, in 1524. The Indians on the coast...

Treaty of June 2, 1825

Articles of a treaty made and concluded at St. Louis, in the State of Missouri, between William Clark, Superintendent of Indian Affairs, Commissioner on the part of the United States, and the undersigned, Chiefs, Head-Men, and Warriors, of the Great and Little Osage Tribes of Indians, duly authorized and empowered by their respective Tribes or Nations. In order more effectually to extend to said Tribes that protection of the Government so much desired by them, it is agreed as follows: Article I. The Great and Little Osage Tribes or Nations do, hereby, cede and relinquish to the United States, all their right, title, interest, and claim, to lands lying within the State of Missouri and Territory of Arkansas, and to all lands lying West of the said State of Missouri and Territory of Arkansas, North and West of the Red River, South of the Kansas River, and East of a line to be drawn from the head sources of the Kansas, Southwardly through the Rock Saline, with such reservations, for such considerations, and upon such terms as are hereinafter specified, expressed, and provided for. Article II. Within the limits of the country, above ceded and relinquished, there shall be reserved, to, and for, the Great and Little Osage Tribes or Nations, aforesaid, so long as they may choose to occupy the same, the following described tract of land: beginning at a point due East of White Hair’s Village, and twenty-five miles West of the Western boundary line of the State of Missouri, fronting on a North and South line, so as to leave ten miles North, and forty miles...

Our Arrival At Sarnia.

Mrs. Walker’s boarding-house was a frame, white-painted house situate in the town of Sarnia, a little way back from the main street. The Indian Reserve almost adjoined the town, so that a quarter of an hour’s walk would take us on to their land. In front of the town and flowing down past the Indian Reserve is the broad river St. Clair, connecting Lake Huron with Lake Erie, its banks on the Canadian side dotted over with the boats and fishing nets of the Indians. I at once invested in a horse and buggy, and also engaged Wagimah as my interpreter. I could already read the service in Indian, but required an interpreter’s aid for conversing with the people and preaching. Our Sunday services were held in a vacant log hut, in which we had a little desk rigged up and some forms arranged as seats. On my first Sunday among them I baptized two children, an infant in arms named Jacob Gray, and a child of four or five named Thomas Winter. Both of these boys some nine or ten years afterwards became pupils at the Shingwauk Home. Our great object now was to build a log church and also a Mission house for our own use with as little delay as possible. There was a quaint old Indian, or rather half-breed, for he was partly French, with whom I had some conversation in regard to our proposed operations. “Well, Mr. Leviere,” I said to him one day, “what do you think the Indians will be willing to do? Will they cut down the trees,–square and haul the...

Mission Work At Sarnia.

After settling in at our new home on the Sarnia Reserve, a great part of my time was taken up in exploring through the Bush and visiting the Indians in their houses. We found one very piteous case of a poor woman in the last stage of consumption. The poor creature was worn to a skeleton lying on a most miserable looking bed with nothing to cover her but a ragged strip of black funereal-looking cloth. Although so very ill, she was able to answer the questions that Wagimah put to her, and when I offered to read the Bible to her she seemed very glad. She listened most attentively while I read in Ojebway the eighteenth chapter of St. Luke, and told her of the love of Christ in coming to save sinners. Then we knelt, and I offered two prayers for the sick copied into my pocket-companion from the Indian prayer-book. We visited the poor creature several times again, and once Mrs. Wilson accompanied me and brought with her some blanc-mange or jelly which she had made. She was much touched at the sight of the poor creature’s utter destitution. We were amused as we went along to see a pair of babies’ boots hanging on the branch of a tree, evidently placed there by some honest Indian who had chanced to find them on the road. This is what the Indians generally do if they find anything that has been lost,–they hang it up in a conspicuous place, so that the owner may find it again if he comes by the same way. I had been...

Dawes Act

General Allotment Act or Dawes Act An Act to Provide for the Allotment of Lands in Severalty to Indians on the Various Reservations (General Allotment Act or Dawes Act), Statutes at Large 24, 388-91,      Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, That in all cases where any tribe or band of Indians has been, or shall hereafter be, located upon any reservation created for their use, either by treaty stipulation or by virtue of an act of Congress or executive order setting apart the same for their use, the President of the United States be, and he hereby is, authorized, whenever in his opinion any reservation or any part thereof of such Indians is advantageous for agricultural and grazing purposes, to cause said reservation, or any part thereof, to be surveyed, or resurveyed if necessary, and to allot the lands in said reservation in severalty to any Indian located thereon in quantities as follows: To each head of a family, one-quarter of a section; To each single person over eighteen years of age, one-eighth of a section; To each orphan child under eighteen years of age, one-eighth of a section; and To each other single person under eighteen years now living, or who may be born prior to the date of the order of the President directing an allotment of the lands embraced in any reservation, one-sixteenth of a section: Provided, That in case there is not sufficient land in any of said reservations to allot lands to each individual of the classes above named in...

Biographical Sketch of Martin R. Brown

Commonly called by his Cherokee name Tuxie, was a very prominent citizen of the Cherokee Nation. Elected clerk of the Illinois District in 1881; elected a member of the Board of Education of the Cherokee Nation in November 1886, and Superintendent of the Male Seminary in 1894. Mr. and Mrs. Brown are now...

Biographical Sketch of Frank R. Sullivan

(See Grant and Cordery)-Frank Robert, son of James and Mary Claremore April 5, 1878. Educated at Yellow Springs, Cooweescoowee District. Married Daisy Bishop. They were the parent; of James Bradshaw Sullivan, born June 10, 1897, Mr. Sullivan married June 2, 1900, Peggy Stop born in 1875 and educated at Catoosa. They are the parents of: Andrew Leerskov, born February 8, 1914, and Mary Belle Sullivan, born June 24, 1916. Mr. Sullivan is a farmer near Claremore. James, son of George and Elizabeth Ann (Rogers) Sullivan was born in Georgia April 23, 1849. Married Mary Ann, daughter of George Washington and Elmira (Gardinhier) McPherson, born November 19, 1846. She died in 1883 and he died June 25, 1901. Susan, daughter of John and Nannie (Fields) Crutchfield married James Stopp and they were the parents of Mrs. Frank...

Biographical Sketch of Stephen G. Maxfield

Stephen G., the son of Jenkins Whiteside and Kate (Hastings) Maxfield, was born in 1873; was educated in the public schools of the Cherokee Nation. He married at Claremore in 1894, Ada, the daughter of Joseph Shockey. They are the parents of Grace, Cora, Pauline, Almeda, and Woodrow Maxfield. Mr. and Mrs. Maxfield are members of the Methodist Church. He is affiliated with the Independent Order of Odd Fellows, and the Knights of...

Biographical Sketch of Mrs. Samuel Hildebrand

(See Hildebrand) -Fannie, daughter of Frank and Agnes (Foster) Fritz was born in Cooweescoowee District October 8, 1879. Educated at Carlyle and Haskell Institutes. Married at Vinita February 24, 1900 Samuel, son of Benjamin and Delilah (O’Fields) Hildebrand, born February 14, 1880. Educated in the Male Seminary. They are the parents of Agnes; born February 25, 1902; Lura, born March 27, 1904; Edward, born May 3, 1906; Aaron born April 19, 1908; Glenn, born October 23, 1911; Floyd, born January 17, 1914; Georgia, born February 22, 1918 and Melvin Hildebrand, born January 31, 1920. Mrs. Hildebrand is a Methodist and a Rebekah. Mr. Hildebrand is a member of the Independent Order of Odd Fellows. They are farmers near...
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