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Agreement of July 27, 1866

Articles of agreement and convention made and concluded at Fort Berthold in the Territory of Dakota, on the twenty-seventh day of July, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and sixty-six, by and between Newton Edmunds, governor and ex-officio superintendent of Indian affairs of Dakota Territory; Major General S. R. Curtis, Orrin Guernsey and Henry W. Reed, commissioners appointed on the part of the United States to make treaties with the Indians of the Upper Missouri; and the chiefs and headmen of the Arickaree tribe of Indians, Witnessed as follows: Article I. Perpetual peace, friendship, and amity shall hereafter exist between the United States and the said Arickaree Indians. Article II. The said Arickaree tribe of Indians promise and agree that they will maintain peaceful and friendly relations toward the whites; that they will in future, abstain from all hostilities against each other, and cultivate mutual good will and friendship, not only among themselves, but toward all other friendly tribes of Indians. Article III. The chiefs and headmen aforesaid acting as the representatives of the tribe aforesaid and being duly authorized and hereunto directed, in consideration of the payments and privileges hereinafter stated, do hereby grant and convey to the United States the right to lay out and construct roads, highways, and telegraphs through their country, and to use their efforts to prevent them from annoyance or interruption by their own or other tribes of Indians. Article IV. No white person, unless in the employ of the United States, or duly licensed to trade with said Indians, or members of the families of such persons shall...

Agreement of July 17, 1866

Articles of agreement and convention made and concluded at Fort Berthold in the Territory of Dakota, on the twenty-seventh day of July, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and sixty-six, by and between Newton Edmunds, governor and ex-officio superintendent of Indian affairs of Dakota Territory; Major General S. R. Curtis, Orrin Guernsey and Henry W. Reed, commissioners appointed on the part of the United States to make treaties with the Indians of the Upper Missouri; and the chiefs and headmen of the Arickaree tribe of Indians, Witnesseth as follows: Article 1. Perpetual peace, friendship, and amity shall hereafter exist between the United States and the said Arickaree Indians. Article 2. The said Arickaree tribe of Indians promise and agree that they will maintain peaceful and friendly relations toward the whites; that they will in future, abstain from all hostilities against each other, and cultivate mutual good will and friendship, not only among themselves, but toward all other friendly tribes of Indians. Article 3. The chiefs and headmen aforesaid acting as the representatives of the tribe aforesaid and being duly authorized and hereunto directed, in consideration of the payments and privileges hereinafter stated, do hereby grant and convey to the United States the right to lay out and construct roads, highways, and telegraphs through their country, and to use their efforts to prevent them from annoyance or interruption by their own or other tribes of Indians. Article 4. No white person, unless in the employ of the United States, or duly licensed to trade with said Indians, or members of the families of such persons shall...

Arikara Indians

Arikara Indians. Signifying “horns,” or “elk,” and having reference to their ancient manner of wearing the hair with two pieces of bone standing up, one on each side of the crest; -ra is the plural suffix. Also called: Ă da ka’ da ho, Hidatsa name. Ah-pen-ope-say, or A-pan-to’-pse, Crow name. Corn eaters, given as their own name. Ka’-nan-in, Arapaho name, meaning “people whose jaws break in pieces.” O-no’-ni-o, Cheyenne name. Padani, Pani, applied to them by various tribes. Ree, abbreviation of Arikara. Sanish, “person,” their own name, according to Gilmore (1927). S’gŭǐes’tshi, Salish name. Stâr-râh-he’ [tstarahi], their own name, according to Lewis and Clark (1904-05). Tanish, their own name, meaning “the people,” according to Hayden (1862). Perhaps a misprint of Sanish. Wa-zi’-ya-ta Pa-da’-nin, Yankton name, meaning “northern Pawnee.” Arikara Connections. The Arikara belonged to the Caddoan linguistic stock and were a comparatively recent offshoot of the Skidi Pawnee. Arikara Location. In historic times they have occupied various points on the Missouri River between Cheyenne River, South Dakota, and Fort Berthold, North Dakota. (See also Montana and Nebraska.) Arikara Subdivisions and Villages The Arikara are sometimes spoken of as a confederacy of smaller tribes each occupying its own village, and one account mentions 10 of these, while Gilmore (1927) furnishes the names of 12, including 4 of major importance under which the others were grouped. These were as follows: Awahu, associated with which were Hokat and Scirihauk. Hukawirat, with which were associated Warihka and Nakarik. Tusatuk, with which were associated Tsininatak and Witauk. Tukstanu, with which were associated Nakanusts and Nisapst. Earlier sources give other names which do not agree...

Hidatsa Indians

Hidatsa Indians. Derived from the name of a former village and said, on somewhat doubtful authority, to signify “willows.” Also called: A-gutch-a-ninne-wug, Chippewa name, meaning “the settled people.” A-me-she’, Crow name, meaning “people who live in earth houses.” Gi-aucth-in-in-e-wug, Chippewa name, meaning “men of the olden time.” Gros Ventres of the Missouri, traders’ name, probably derived from the sign for them in the sign language. Hewaktokto, Dakota name. Minitari, meaning “they crossed the water,” said to have been given to them by the Mandan, from the tradition of their first encounter with the tribe on the Missouri. Wa-nuk’-e-ye’-na, Arapaho name, meaning “lodges planted together.” Wetitsatn, Arikara name. Hidatsa Connections. The Hidatsa belonged to the Siouan linguistic stock, their closest relations within it being the Crow. Hidatsa Location. They lived at various points on the Missouri between the Heart and Little Missouri Rivers. (See also Montana) Hidatsa Villages Lewis and Clark (1804-5) give the following three names: Amahami or Mahaha, on the south bank of Knife River, formerly an independent but closely related tribe. Amatiha, on the south bank of Knife River. Hidatsa, on the north bank of Knife River. The band names given by Morgan are rather those of social divisions. Hidatsa History. According to tradition, the Hidatsa formerly lived by a lake northeast of their later country, one sometimes identified with Devil’s Lake. They moved from there to the mouth of Heart River, where they met and allied themselves with the Mandan, and from them they learned agriculture. As we have seen, Lewis and Clark found them on Knife River. In 1837 a terrible smallpox epidemic wasted them...

Mandan Indians

Mandan Indians. Probably a corruption of the Dakota word applied to them, Mawatani. Also called: A-rach-bo-cu, Hidatsa name (Long, 1791) As-a-ka-shi, Us-suc-car-shay, Crow name. How-mox-tox-sow-es, Hidatsa name (?). Kanit’, Arikara name. Kwowahtewug, Ottawa name. Métutahanke, own name since 1837, after their old village. Mo-no’-ni-o, Cheyenne name. Numakaki, own name prior to 1837, meaning “men,” “people.” U-ka’-she, Crow name, meaning “earth houses.” Mandan Connections. The Mandan belonged to the Siouan linguistic stock. Their connections are with the Tutelo and Winnebago rather than the nearer Siouan tribes. Mandan Location. When known to the Whites, the Mandan were on the same part of the Missouri River as the Hidatsa, between Heart and Little Missouri Rivers. (See also South Dakota) Mandan Subdivisions and Villages. The division names given by Morgan (1851) appear to have been those of their former villages and are as follows: Horatamumake, Matonumake, Seepoosha, Tanatsuka, Kitanemake, Estapa, and Neteahke. In 1804 Lewis and Clark found two villages in existence, Metutahanke and Ruptari, about 4 miles below the mouth of Knife River. They were divided socially into two moieties named like those of the Hidatsa, the Four-Clan Moiety and Three-Clan Moiety, and many of the clans constituting these bear village names. One of Dr. Lowie’s (1917) informants gave the Prairie-chicken people, Young white-headed Eagle, People all in a bunch, and Crow people, as clans of the first Moiety; and the Maxi’?kina, Tamï’sik, and Nu-‘ptare as clans of the second. Another informant gave the following clans altogether: Si’pucka, Xtaxta’nü’mak’, Village above, Maxáhe, Tami(‘sik, Seven-different kinds, Hilltop village, Scattered village, white-bellied mouse people, and Nu-ptare. Curtis (1907-9) and Maximilian (1843) give a Badger...

Letter from an Indian Chief in Dakota

My Dear Sir:—— Will you Please I have got your letter and I was vey glad—and vey Good letter—and I tell My Indian friends all good men and We are vey glad to see your good paper. And, Now, We Mandans Indian We are maken houses this River south sides and We are farmes And we have Great fields—and We like Vey much the White man Ways—and We are White mans—and We are a Friends to the White, and We hear much talk of you and we are good Indians Mandans. We do not do foolish to the Whites, and We are a good Friends to the Whites——And now I wants to know the Great Fathers Wishes to us. Please good tell me the Great fathers what he say to us—When you get this letter Please Write to me Very soon. Good buy— I am Very your truly friends, MR. WOLFE, Chief. Fort Berthold West, 30 miles from here I live and have 16 acres and I am glad. I have a cow, 6 horses, a wagon, a plow. I have three houses and a store. I live south side this River. Yours, MR. WOLFE, Chief. The Indian Problem A good deal of ingenious ciphering has been done in endeavoring to solve this problem, and, withal, there has been a good deal of honest and efficient work. The Government has largely increased its appropriations from year to year, the Dawes Bill and other valuable legislation have been secured, so that steps looking towards the citizenship of the Indian have been attained. Appropriations have been granted to aid him in...

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