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Winnebago Tribe

Winnebago Indians, Winnebago Nation (winǐpig, ‘filthy water’ [Chippewa]; winǐpyägohagi, ‘people of the filthy water’ [Sauk and Fox]. W. J.) A tribe of the Siouan linguistic family. Winnebago Tribe History The Winnebago have been known to the whites since 1634, when the Frenchman Nicollet found them in Wisconsin, on Green bay, at which time they probably extended to Lake Winnebago. At this period they were found wedged in by Central Algonquian tribes, particularly by the Sauk and Foxes and the Menominee. To the west they were in intimate contact with a kindred tribe, the Iowa, who in turn were neighbors of the Oto and Missouri. These four tribes, the Winnebago, Iowa, Oto, and Missouri, speak dialects naturally intelligible to one another, and show many cultural similarities. On the other hand, the Winnebago show many cultural similarities with their Central Algonquian neighbors, particularly in all that pertains to material culture and art, and this double influence, that from their Siouan neighbors and that from their Algonquian neighbors, must be borne in mind in any attempt to understand properly the Winnebago culture. It is stated in the Jesuit Relation for 16711 that the Winnebago had always dwelt in the Green Bay region. Allouez spent the winter of 1669-70 at Green Bay, preaching to the Potawatomi, Menominee, Sauk, Foxes, and Winnebago, whom he, found commingled there. The map of 1681 accompanying Marquette’s Journal notes a Winnebago village near the north end of Lake Winnebago. At a very early date, it is stated in the Jesuit Relation for 1671, they were almost entirely destroyed by the Illinois, but all captives were at last allowed to...

Yanktonai Tribe

Yanktonai Indians (ihanke ‘end,’ tonwan ‘village,’ na diminutive: ‘little-end village.’Riggs). One of the 7 primary divisions or subtribes of the Dakota, speaking the same dialect as the Yankton and believed to be the elder tribe. Long evidently obtained tradition from the Indians to this effect. He first apparent reference to one of the tribes in which the other is not included is that to the Yankton by La Sueur in 1700. It is not until noticed by Lewis and Clark in 1804 that they reappear. These explorers state that they roved on the headwaters of the Sioux, James, and Red rivers. The migration from their eastern home, north of Mille Lac, Minnesota, probably took place at the beginning of the 18th century. It is likely that they followed or accompanied the Teton, while the Yankton turned more and more toward the southwest. Long (1823) speaks of them as one of the most important of the Dakota tribes, their hunting grounds extending from Red river to the Missouri. Warren (1855) gives as their habitat the country between the James river and the Missouri, extending as far north as Devils lake, and states that they fought against the United States in the War of 1812, and that their chief at that time went to England. It does not appear that this tribe took any part in the Minnesota massacre of 1862. In 1865 separate treaties of peace were made with the United States by the Upper and Lower Yanktonai, binding them to use their influence and power to prevent hostilities not only against citizens, but also between the Indian tribes in...

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