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Ute Tribe

Ute Indians. An important Shoshonean division, related linguistically to the Paiute, Chemehuevi, Kawaiisu, and Bannock. They formerly occupied the entire central and west portions of Colorado and the east portion of Utah, including the east part of Salt Lake valley and Utah valley. On the south they extended into New Mexico, occupying much of the upper drainage area of the San Juan. They appear to have always been a warlike people, and early came into possession of horses, which intensified their aggressive character. None of the tribes practiced agriculture. Very little is known of their social and political organization, although the seven Ute tribes of Utah were at one time organized into a confederacy under chief Tabby (Taíwi). Dialectic differences exist in the language, but these do not appear to be great and probably presented little difficulty to intercourse between the several bands or geographical bodies. In the north part of their range, in Utah, they appear to have become considerably intermixed by marriage with their Shoshoni, Bannock, and Paiute kindred, and on the south with the Jicarilla Apache. Ute Tribe History The first treaty with the Ute, one of peace and amity, was concluded Dec. 30, 1849. By Executive order of Oct. 3, 1861, Uintah valley was set apart for the Uinta tribe and the remainder of the land claimed by them was taken without formal purchase. By treaty of Oct. 7, 1863, the Tabeguache were assigned a reservation and the remainder of their land was ceded to the United States. On May 5, 1864, various reserves, established in 1856 and 1859 by Indian agents, were ordered vacated...

Two Kettles Sioux Tribe

Two Kettle Indians, Two Kettle Lakota, Oohenonpa Tribe, Oohenonpa Indians,  (‘two boilings’ ). A division of the Teton Sioux, commonly known as Two Kettle Sioux, or Two Kettles; also a subdivision thereof. No mention of it is made by Lewis and Clark, Long, or other earlier explorers. It is stated in a note to De Smet’s Letters (1843) that the band was estimated at 800 persons. Culbertson (1850) estimated them at 60 lodges, but gives no locality and says they have no divisions. Gen. Warren (1856) found them much scattered among other bands and numbering about 100 lodges. Gumming1 places them on the south side of the Missouri. Hayden (1862) says they passed up and down Cheyenne river as far as Cherry creek and Moreau and Grand rivers, not uniting with other bands. Their principal chief then was Matotopa, or Four Bears, a man of moderate capacity but exercising a good influence on his people. They lived entirely on the plains, seldom going to war, and were good hunters and shrewd in their dealings with the traders. They treated with respect white men who came among them as traders or visitors. They were on the warpath in 1866 at the time of the Ft Phil. Kearney massacre, yet it is not certain that they took an active part in this attack. By treaty made at Ft Sully, Dakota, on Oct. 19, 1865, they agreed to cease attacking whites or Indians except in self defense and to settle permanently on designated lands. This treaty was signed on their behalf by chiefs Chatanskah (White Hawk), Shonkahwakkonkedeshkah (Spotted Horse), Mahtotopah (Four Bears),...

Blackfoot Tribe

Sihasapa (‘black feet’, so called because they wore black moccasins). A small division of the Teton Sioux. The name, like the names of some other Teton tribes, does not appear to have come into notice until a recent date, no mention being made of it by Lewis and Clark, Long, or earlier authorities. Catlin in his Letters and Notes, written during his stay among the northwestern Indians (1832-39), mentions the Blackfoot Sioux. In a note to De Smet’s Letters1 they were estimated to number 1,500. Culbertson2 estimated the tribe at 450 lodges, an exaggeration, and mentions five bands or subtribes, but does not locate them. It was not until Gen. Warren and Dr. Hayden visited their country that definite information in regard to them was obtained. The former (1856) makes the following brief notes: “Sihasapas Blackfeet. Haunts and homes same as the Unkpapas; number, 165 lodges. These two bands have very little respect for the power of the whites. Many of the depredations along the Platte are committed by the Unkpapas and Sihasapas, whose homes are farther from it than those of any other of the Titonwans.” Hayden (1862) says that they, the Hunkpapa and Sans Arcs, “occupy nearly the same district, and are so often encamped near each other, and otherwise so connected in their operations, as scarcely to admit of being treated of separately. That part of the country under their control lies along the Moreau, Cannonball, Heart, and Grand Rivers, seldom extending very high up on Grand River, but of late years reaching to the Little Missouri [in North Dakota]. Although the bands just mentioned are...

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