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Nootka Tribe

Nootka Indians, Nootka People, Nootka First Nations. A name originally applied to the Mooachaht of Nootka sound, west coast of Vancouver Island, and to their principal town, Yuquot, but subsequently extended to all the tribes speaking a similar language. These extend from Cook Creek to the north to beyond Port San Juan, and include the Makah of Flattery Creek, Washington. Sometimes the term has been used as to exclude the last named tribe. The Nootka form one branch of the great Wakashan family and their relationship to the second or Kwakiutl branch is apparent only on close examination. In 1906 there were 435 Makah and 2,159 Vancouver Island Nootka for a total of 2,594. They are decreasing slowly but steadily, the reduction in population of the Nootka of Vancouver Island alone having exceeded 250 between 1901 and 1906. The Nootka tribes are: Ahousaht, Chaicclesaht, Clayoquot, Cooptee, Ehatisaht, Ekoolthaht, Hachaath (extinct), Hesquiat, Kelsemaht, Klahosaht (probably extinct), Kwoneatshatka (?), Kyuquot, Makah, Manosaht, Mooachaht, Muchalat, Nitinat, Nuchatlitz, Oiaht, Opitchesaht, Pachenaht, Seshart, Toquart, Uchucklesit, and Ucluelet.  ...

Nanaimo Tribe

Nanaimo Indians, Nanaimo People, Nanaimo First Nation (contraction of Snanaímux). A Salish tribe, speaking the Cowichan dialect, living about Nanaimo Harbor, on the east coast of Vancouver Island and on Nanaimo Lake, British Columbia.  Population 161 in 1906. Their gentes are Anuenes, Koltsiowotl, Ksalokul, Tewethen, and...

Nahane Tribe

Nahane Indians, Nahane People, Nahane First Nation (‘people of the west.’). An Athapascan division occupying the region of British Columbia and Yukon Territory between the Coast range and the Rocky mountains, from the north border of the Sekani, about 57° north, to that of the Kutchin tribes, about 65° north. It comprises the Tahltan and Takutine tribes forming the Taliltan division, the Titshotina and Etagottine tribes forming the Kaska division, and the Esbataottine and Abbatotine (considered by Petitot to be the same tribe), Sazeutina, Ettchaottine, Etagottine, Kraylongottine, Klokegottine, and perhaps Lakuyip and Tsetsant. They correspond with Petitot’s Montagnard group, except that he included also the Sekani. The language of the Nahane however constitutes a dialect by itself, entirely distinct from Sekani, Carrier, or Kutchin. The western divisions have been powerfully influenced by their Tlingit neighbors of Wrangell, and have adopted their clan organization with maternal descent, the potlatch customs of the coast tribes, and many words and expressions of their language. The two principal social divisions or phratries are called Raven and Wolf, and the fact that Sazeutina and Titshotina seem to signify ‘Bear people’ and ‘Grouse people’ respectively, leads Morice to suspect that these groups are really phratries or clans. The eastern Nahane have a loose paternal organization like the Sekani and other Athapascan tribes farther east. According to Morice the Nahane have suffered very heavily as a result of white contact. He estimates the entire population at about...

Biography of John B. Tays

John B. Tays is one of the early settlers and enterprising and progressive citizens of Ontario. He is the owner of forty acres of land in that colony and has for years been building up the horticultural industries of his section. His place is located on the south side of Thirteenth Street, east of Euclid Avenue. Mr. Tays purchased this land in 1883 and immediately commenced its improvement, planting trees and vines. He is justly ranked among the pioneer horticulturists of Ontario, and has produced one of the representative places of his section. He now has twenty acres in citrus fruits, of which fifteen acres are in oranges of the Washington Navel and Mediterranean Sweet varieties; five acres are in lemons. His fine vineyards contain twenty acres, fourteen acres being devoted to wine grapes of the Zinfandel, Berger and Riesling varieties, and six acres to Muscat raisin grapes. There are also 400 olive trees upon his laud, three years old. The products of his vineyards are cared for upon the ranch. He dries, packs and ships his raisins, and to dispose of his wine grapes has built a well-ordered and complete winery for distilling the brandies necessary to fortify his sweet wines. He is successful in this industry and his products find a ready sale at good prices. A neat and comfortable cottage residence, suitable outbuildings, etc., attest the well-ordered home. Mr. Tays has also been identified with building up the town of Ontario. Among his improvements in that respect was the improvements on the villa lot on the corner of D and Euclid avenues, where he lived for...

Biography of John Boyd

John Boyd, a well-known citizen of Riverside, though not a pioneer, has been a resident of the city since 1876, and there are few men who have been more closely identified with the real interest and improvements of the city than John Boyd. He arrived at a time when the first named commodity at least was needed and appreciated. He erected a substantial building on Main Street, and entered into business; and as the demands of the city increased he was ever to the front with his improvements. The present magnificent Boyd block, with its frontage of 111 1/2 feet on Main Street, is one of the results of his enterprise. He erected spacious warehouses and storerooms on Eighth Street and Pachappa Avenue, and established a commission and storage business. This was in 1885, and in 1887 he formed a partnership with Frank B. DeVine, purchased the first packing business of the German Fruit Company, and under the firm name of Boyd & DeVine ‘combined the two enterprises and founded one of the most substantial and largest business establishments in the county. Mr. Boyd is a self-made man, one who started in life handicapped with obstacles which when not pursued with his rugged energy and perseverance would be deemed insurmountable. The few and brief facts gathered regarding his life before his advent in Riverside are as follows: He was born in Montreal, in 1833. His father was an Indian trader, having his stations scattered along the Canadian shores of the great lakes of the northwest. From his early boy-hood Mr. Boyd was the companion of his father, sharing in...

Chehalis Tribe

Chehalis Indians. Chehalis actually refers to two distinct peoples. One group of tribes residing on the Chehalis River in Washington, another tribe, a sub-tribe of the Cowichan First Nation residing along the Harrison River in British Columbia. We provide both below.

Senijextee Tribe

Senijextee Indians. A Salish tribe formerly residing on both sides of Columbia River from Kettle falls to the Canadian boundary; they also occupied the valley of Kettle River; Kootenay River form its mouth to the first falls, and the region of the Arrow Lakes, British Columbia.  In 1909 those in the United States numbered 342 on the Colville Reservation,...

Semiahmoo Tribe

Semiahmoo Indians. A Salish tribe living about the bay of the same in north west Washington and south west British Columbia.  In 1843 they numbered about 300 and in 1909 there were 38 of the tribe on the Canadian...

Ntlakyapamuk Tribe

Ntlakyapamuk Indians. One of the four great Salish tribes inhabiting the interior of British Columbia and popularly called Thompson Indian from the river on which a large part of them live. Internally they are divided into the Lower Thonlpsons living from a short distance below Spuzzum on Fraser river, nearly to the village of Cisco, and the Upper Thompson, whose towns extend from tile latter point nearly to Lillooet on the Fraser, to within a short distance of Ashcroft on the Thompson, and over all of Nicola valley. The Upper Thompsons are subdivided by Teit into 4 minor bands, the Lytton band, the Nicola band, the Spences Bridge band, and the Upper Fraser band. In addition the following subdivisions are mentioned: Ainslie Creek Boothroyds Canoe Lake Indians Cooks Ferry Rhaap Skowtous Snakaim Total population 1,826 in 1902, 1,776 in 1906. The following list of villages was obtained principally from Teit: Villages of the Lower Thompsons: Chetawe Kalulaadlek Kapachichin Kapaslok Kilmus Kleaukt Koiaum Nkakim Nkattsim Nkoiam Noieltsi Npiktim Ntsuwiek Sintaktl Skohwak Skuzis Skwauvik Spaim Spuzzum Stahehani Suk Tagwayaum Tikwalus Tliktlaketin Tzauamuk Villages of the Lytton band: Anektettim Cisco Kittsawat Natkelptetenk Nchekchekokenk Nehowmean Nikaomin Nkoikin Nkya Noöt Npuichin Ntlaktlakitin Staiya Stryne. Tlkamcheen Tuhezep Villages of the Upper Fraser band: Ahulka Nesikeep Nkaktko Ntlippaem Skekaitin Tiaks Villages of the Spences Bridge band: Atchitchiken Klukluuk Nkamchin Nkoeitko Nokem Nskakaulten Ntekem Nukaatko Pekaist Pemainus Semehau Snapa Spatsum Stlaz Tlotlowuk Zakhauzsiken Village of the Nicola band: Hanehewedl Huthutkawedl Koiskana Kwilchana Naaik Nchekus Nsisket Ntstlatko Petutek Shahanik Tsulus Zoht To these the following names must be added, although one or two of them may possibly be...
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