[Clark, October 8, 1804]
8th of October Monday 1804 - a cool Morning wind from the N. W. passed the mouth of a Small Creek on the L. S. about 21/2 Miles above the Isd. Passed the Mouth of a River on the L. S. called by the Ricaries We-tar-hoo. this river is 120 yards wide, the water Confined within 20 yards, throws out mud with little Sand, great quanties of red Berries, resembling Currents near the mouth of this river Latd. 45° 39' 5 N. this river heads in the 1s Black Mountain, 2 Miles higher up passed a Small River on the L. S. Called Maropa 25 yards wide Chocked up with mud- our hunters discovered a Ricara village on an Island a fiew miles above we passed the 1s Ricara Village about the center of the Island, in presence of Great numbers of Spectators and Camped above the Island on the L. S. at the foot of Some high land. (Mr. Gravotine a French man joined us as an interpeter) The Island on which is Ricara Village is Situated, is about 3 miles long Seperated from the Main L. Side by a Narrow Deep Channel, those Indians Cultivate on the Island Corn Beens Simmins, Tobacco &c &c. after Landing Capt. Lewis with Mr. Gravelin and 3 men went to the Village, I formd a Camp on Shore with the Perogue crew & guard, with the Boat at Anchor, Capt Lewis returned late, a french man and a Spaniard accompanied him
[Clark, October 8, 1804]
8th of October Monday 1804 - a Cool morning Set out early the wind from the N. W. proceeded on passed the mouth of a Small Creek on the L. S. about 21/2 miles above Grouse Island, (3) passed a willow Island which Divides the Current equilly. (2) passed the mouth of a River called by the ricares We tar hoo on the L. S. this river is 120 yards wide, the water of which at this time is Confined within 20 yards, dischargeing but a Small quantity, throwing out mud with Small propotion of Sand, great quantities of the red Berries, ressembling Currents, are on the river in every bend- 77° 33' 0" Lattitude from the Obsevation of to day at the mouth of this river is 45° 39' 5"-North- proceeded on passed a (3) Small river of 25 yards wide Called (4) or Beaver Dam R this river is intirely Chocked up with mud, with a Streem of 1 Inch Diamiter passing through, discharging no Sand, at 1 (5) mile passed the lower pint of an Island close on the L. S. 2 of our men discovered the reckerrei village, about the Center of the Island on the L. Side on the main Shore. this Island is about 3 miles long, Seperated from the L. S. by a Channel of about 60 yards wide verry Deep, The Isld. is covered with fields, where those people raise their Corn Tobacco Beens &c. &c. Great numbers of those People came on the Island to See us pass, we passed above the head of the Island & Capt. Lewis with 2 interpeters & 2 men went to the Village I formed a Camp of the french & the guard on Shore, with one Sentinal on board of the boat at anchor, a pleasent evening all things arranged both for Peace or War, This Village (6) is Situated about the Center of a large Island near the L. Side & near the foot of Some high bald uneaven hills, Several french men Came up with Capt Lewis in a Perogue, one of which is a Mr. Gravellin a man well versed in the language of this nation and gave us Some information relitive to the Countrey naton &c
[Clark, October 8, 1804]
Orders October the 8th 1804 - Robert Frazer being regularly inlisted and haveing become on of the Corps of Vollenteers for North Western Discovery, he is therefore to be viewed & respected accordingly; and will be anexed to Sergeant Gass's mess.
Win Clark Cpt &. Meriwether Lewis River Marapa Capt. 1st U.S. Regt. Infty
[Clark, October 9, 1804]
9th of October Tuesday 1804 - a windey night Some rain, and the wind Continued So high & cold We could not Speck in Council with the Indians, we gave them Some Tobacco and informed them we would Speek tomorrow, all the grand Chiefs visited us to day also Mr Taboe, a trader from St. Louis- Many Canoes of a Single Buffalow Skin made in the form of a Bowl Carrying generally 3 and Sometimes 5 & 6 men, those Canoes, ride the highest Waves- the Indians much asstonished at my Black Servent and Call him the big medison, this nation never Saw a black man before, the wind verry high, I saw at Several times to day 3 Squars in single Buffalow Skin Canoes loaded with meat Cross the River, at the time the waves were as high as I ever Saw them in the Missouri
[Clark, October 9, 1804]
9th of October 1804 Tuesday - a windey rainey night, and Cold, So much So we Could not Speek with the Indians to day the three great Chiefs and many others Came to See us to day, we gave them Some tobacco and informed them we would Speek on tomorrow, the day Continued Cold & windey Some rain Sorry Canoos of Skins passed down from the 2 villages a Short distance above, and many Came to view us all day, much asstonished at my black Servent, who did not lose the oppertunity of his powers Strength &c. &. this nation never Saw a black man before.
Several hunters Came in with loads of meat, I observed Several Canoos made of a Single buffalow Skin with 2 & 3 Thre Squars Cross the river to day in Waves as high as I ever Saw them on this river, quite uncomposed I have a Slite Plurise this evening Verry Cold &c. &.
1st Chiefs name Ka kawissassa (lighting Crow.) 2d do do Pocasse (or Hay) 3d do do Piaa he to (or Eagles feather)
[Clark, October 10, 1804]
10th of October 1804 - at 11 oClock the wind Shifted from S. E to N W. Mr. Taboe visited us- we hear that Some jealousy exists as to the Chiefs to be made- at 1 oclock the Cheifs all assembled under an orning near the Boat, and under the American Flag. we Delivered a Similar Speech to those delivered the Ottoes & Sioux, made three Chiefs, one for each Village and gave them Clothes & flags- 1 s Chief is name Ka-ha-wiss assa lighting ravin 2d Chief Po-casse (Hay) & the 3rd Piaheto or Eagles Feather- after the Council was over we Shot the Air gun, which astonished them, & they all left us, I observed 2 Sioux in the Council one of them I had Seen below, they Came to interceed with the Ricaras to Stop us as we were told- the Inds. much astonished at my black Servent, who made him Self more turrible in thier view than I wished him to Doe as I am told telling them that before I cought him he was wild & lived upon people, young children was verry good eating Showed them his Strength &c. &c.- Those Indians are not fond of Licquer of any Kind-
[Clark, October 10, 1804]
10th of October Wednesday 1804. - a fine forming wind from the S. E at about 11 oClock the wind Shifted, to the N. W. we prepare all things ready to Speak to the Indians, Mr. Tabo & Mr. Gravolin Came to brackfast with us the Chiefs &. came from the lower Town, but none from the 2 upper Towns, which is the largest, we Continue to delay & waite for them at 12 oClock Dispatchd Gravelin to envite them to Come down, we have every reason to believe that a jellousy exists between the Villages for fear of our makeing the 1st Cheif from the lower Village, at one oClock the Cheifs all assembled & after Some little Cerrimony the Council Commenced, we informd them what we had told the others before i e Ottoes & Seaux. made 3 Cheif 1 for each Village. gave them presents.
after the Council was Over we Shot the air guns which astonished them much, they then Departed and we rested Secure all night, Those Indians wer much astonished at my Servent, They never Saw a black man before, all flocked around him & examind. him from top to toe, he Carried on the joke and made himself more turibal than we wished him to doe. (Thos Indians were not fond of Spirits Licquer. of any kind)
[Clark, October 11, 1804]
11th of October Thursday 1804 - wind S. E. at 11 oClock met the 1s Chief in Council, he Thanked us for what we had given him & his people promised to attend to our advise, and Said the road was open for us and no one Dare Shut it &c. &. we took him and one Chief on board and Set out, on our way took in the 2d Chief at the mo of a Small Creek, and Came too off the 2d village which is 3 miles above the Island, we walked up with the 2 & 3 Chiefs to their villages which is Situated on each Side of a Small Creek, they gave us Something to eat in thier way, after Conversations on various Subjects & Beareing the civilities of those people who are both pore & dirtey we informed the Chiefs we would here what they had to Say tomorrow and returned on board about 10 oClock P M. Those people gave us to eat Corn & Beans, a large well flavoured Been which they rob the Mice of in the Plains and is verry nurishing-all tranquillity
[Clark, October 11, 1804]
11th October Thursday 1804 - a fine morning the wind from the S. E. at 11 oClock we met the Grand Chief in Council & and he made a Short Speech thanking us for what we had Given him & his nation promisseing to attend to the Council we had given him & informed us the road was open & no one dare Shut it, & we might Departe at pleasure, at 1 oClock we Set out for the upper villages 3 miles distant, the Grand Chief & nephew on board, proceeded on at 1 mile took in the 2d Chief & Came too off the first Second village Seperated from the 3rd by a Creek after arrangeing all matters we walked up with the 2d Chief to his village, and Set talking on various Subjects untile late we also visited the upper or 3rd Village each of which gave us Something to eate in their way, and a fiew bushels of Corn Beens &. &c.
after being treated by everry civility by those people who are both pore & Durtey we returned to our boat at about 10 oClk. P M. informing them before we Departed that we would Speek to them tomorrow at there Seperate Villages. Those people gave us to eate bread made of Corn & Beens, also Corn & Beans boild. a large Been, which they rob the mice of the Prarie which is rich & verry nurrishing also
[Clark, October 11, 1804] (Ricares)
October the 11th Thursday 1804 we met in Council to hear what the Grand Chief Ka kaw issassa had to Say in answer to the Speech of yesterday
The Grand Chief rose and spoke as follows i, e,
My Fathers-! My heart is glader than it ever was before to See my fathers.- a repetition.
If you want the road open no one Can provent it it will always be open for you.
Can you think any one Dare put their hands on your rope of your boat. No! not one dar
When you Get to the mandans we wish you to Speak good words with that Nation for us. we wish to be at peace with them.
It gives us pain that we do not Know how to work the Beaver, we will make Buffalow roabs the best we Can.
when you return if I am living you will See me again the same man The Indian in the prarie know me and listen to my words, when you come they will meet to See you.
We Shall look at the river with impatient for your return. Finished
[Clark, October 12, 1804]
12th of October Friday - after Brackfast we joined the Chiefs & Indians on the bank who wer waiting for us, and proseeded to the 1st village and Lodge of the Pocasse, This man Spok at Some lengths, to the Same purpote of the 1 s Chief, & Declareing his intentions of visiting his great father, Some Doubts as to his Safty in Passing the Sioux, requested us to take a Chief of their nation and make a good peace with the Mandan for them, that they Knew that they were the Cause of the war by Killing the 2 Mandan Chiefs- this Chief & people gave us about 7 bushels of Corn, Some Tobacco of their own make, and Seed Legins & a Robe We proceeded to the 3rd Chiefs Village which is the largest, after the usial Seremoney of Eating Smokg. &. he Spoke to near the Same amount of the last Chief, & more pleasently, he gave us 10 bushels of Corn, Some Beens & Simmins, after he had Spoken, and I gave Some Sketches of the Power & Magnitude of Our Countrey, we returned to our Boat, I have the rhumetism on my neck the Chiefs accompanied us on board, we gave them Some Sugar Salt and a Sun Glass each, and after eating a little they returned on Shore leaveing one to accompany us to the Mandans, and we Set out viewed by men womin & children of each village proceeded on about 91/2 miles and Camped on the S S. Clear & Cold- The Ricaras Are about 500 men Mr. Taboe say 600 able to bear arms, and the remains of ten different tribes of Panias reduced by the Small Pox & wares with the Sioux, they are tall Stout men corsily featured, their womin Small & industerous raise great quantites of corn beans &c also Tobacco for the men to Smoke, they collect all the wood and doe the Drudgery common amongst Savages- Their language is So corrupted that many lodges of the Same village with dificuelty under Stand all that each other Say- They are Dirty, Kind, pore, & extravegent; possessing natural pride, no begers, rcive what is given them with pleasure, Thier houses are close together & Towns inclosed with Pickets, thier Lodges are 30 to 40 feet in Diamuter Covered with earth on Neet Poles Set end wise resting on 4 forks Supporting Beems Set in a Square form near the Center, and lower about 5 feet high other forks all around Supt. Strong Beems, from 8 to 10 of those, with a opening at top of about 5 to 6 feet Square, on the Poles which pass to the top, Small Willow & grass is put across to Support the earth- The Sioux exchange, Some merchndze of Small value which they get from Mr. Cameron of St. Peters for Corn &c and have great influence over this people treat them roughly and keep them in contineal dread- The Ricaras are at war with the Crow Indians and Mandans-&c. &- The Ricaras, have a custom Similar to the Sioux in maney instances, they think they cannot Show a Sufficient acknowledgement without to their guest handsom Squars and think they are despised if they are not recved
The Sioux followed us with women two days we put them off. the Ricarries we put off dureing the time we were near their village- 2 were Sent by a man to follow us, and overtook us this evening, we Still procisted in a refusial-The Dress of the Ricara men is Simpally a pr. of Mockersons & Legins, a flap, and a Buffalow Robe- Their Hair is long and lais loose their arms & ears are decerated with trinkets
The womin Dress Mockersons & Legins & Skirt of the Skin of the Cabre or Antelope, long fringed & roab to the fringes & with Sleaves, verry white, and Roabes- all were Dressed to be without hare in the Summer
Those people make large Beeds of Diferrent colours, out of glass or Beeds of Dift colours, verry ingeniously
[Clark, October 12, 1804]
12th October Friday 1804 - I rose early after brackfast we joined the Indians who were waiting on the bank for us to come out and go and Council, we accordingly joined them and went to the house of the 2nd Chief Lassil where there was many Chief and warriers & about 7 bushels of Corn, a pr Leagins a twist of their Tobacco & Seeds of 2 Kind of Tobacco we Set Some time before the Councill Commenced this man Spoke at Some length declareing his dispotion to believe and prosue our Councils, his intention of going to Visit his great father acknowledged the Satisfaction in receiveing the presents &c. rais'g a Doubt as to the Safty on passing the nations below particularly the Souex. requested us to take a Chief of their nation and make a good pact with Mandins & nations above. after answering those parts of the 2d Chiefs Speech which required it, which appeared to give General Satisfaction we went to the Village of the 3rd Chief and as usial Some Serimony took place before he Could Speek to us on the Great Subject. This Chief Spoke verry much in the Stile on nearly the Same Subjects of the other Chief who Set by his Side, more Sincear & pleasently, he presented us with about 10 bushels of Corn Some beens & quashes all of which we acksepted with much pleasure, after we had ansd. his Speech & give them Some account of the Magnitude & power of our Countrey which pleased and astonished them verry much we returned to our boat, the Chiefs accompanied us on board, we gave them Some Sugar a little Salt, and a Sun Glass, & Set 2 on Shore & the third proceeded on with us to the Mandens by name, at 2 oClock we Set out the inhabitints of the two Villages Viewing us from the banks, we proceeded on about 91/2 miles and Camped on the S. S. at Some woods passed, the evening Clear & pleasent Cooler
The Nation of the Rickerries is about 600 men able to bear arms a Great perpotion of them have fusees they appear to be peacefull, their men tall and perpotiend, womin Small and industerous, raise great quantities of Corn Beens Simmins &c. also Tobacco for the men to Smoke they Collect all the wood and do the drugery as Common amongst Savages.
Thise nation is made up of 10 Different Tribes of the Pania, who had formerly been Seperate, but by Commotion and war with their neighbours have Come reduced and compelled to Come together for protection, The Curruption of the language of those different Tribes has So reduced the language that the Different Villages do not understade all the words of the others.- Those people are Durtey, Kind, pore, & extravigent pursessing national pride. not beggarley reive what is given with great pleasure, Live in worm houses large and built in an oxigon form forming a Cone at top which is left open for the Smoke to pass, those houses are generally 30 or 40 foot Diamiter. Covd. with earth on poles willows & grass to prevent the earths passing thro, Those people express an inclination to be at peace with all nations The Seaux who trade the goods which they get of the British Traders for their corn, and great influence over the Rickeres, poisen their minds and keep them in perpetial dread.
I Saw Some of the Chien or Dog Indians, also a man of a nation under the Court new-This nation is at war with the Crow Indians & have 3 Children prisoners.
a curious Cuistom with the Souix as well as the reckeres is to give handsom Squars to those whome they wish to Show Some acknowledgements to- The Seauix we got Clare of without taking their Squars, they followed us with Squars 13th two days. The Rickores we put off dureing the time we were at the Towns but 2 Handsom young Squars were Sent by a man to follow us, they Came up this evening and peresisted in their Civilities.
Dress of the men of this nation is Simply a pr. mockerson, Leagins, flap in front & a Buffalow roabe, with ther arms & ears Deckorated The women, wore Mockersons leagins fringed and a Shirt of Goat Skins, Some with Sleaves. this garment is longe & Genlry. White & fringed, tied at the waste with a roabe, in Summer without hair.
[Clark, October 12, 1804]
2nd Chief Ricaras
My Father, I am glad to See this is a fine Day to here the good Councils & talk good talk I am glad to See you & that your intentions are to open the road for all we See that our Grand father has Sent you to open the road we See it Our Grand father by Sending you means to take pity on us Our Grand father has Sent you with tobacco to make peace with all nations, we think
The first nation who has recomended the road to be clear and open. You Come here & have Directed all nations which you have met to open & clear the road. you come to See the water & roads to Clear them as Clear as possible
you just now Come to See us, & we wish you to tell our Grand ftar that we wish the road to be kept Clear & open. I expect the Chief in the next Town will tell you the Same to move on & open the road
I think when you Saw the nations below they wish you to open the road-(or something to that amount) when you passd. the Souex they told you the Same I expect. we See you here to day we are pore our women have no Strouds & Knives to Cut their meat take pitty on us when you return.
you Come here & Derect us to Stay at home & not go to war, we Shall do So, we hope you will when you get to the Mandins you will tell them the Same & Cleer the road, no one Dar to Stop you, you go when you please,
The you tell us to go Down, we will go and See our grand father & here & receve his Gifts, and think fully that our nation will be covered after our return, our people will look for us with the same impatience that our Grand father looks for your return, to Give him
If I am going to See my grand father, many bad nations on the road, I am not afraid to Die for the good of my people (all Cried around him.)
The Chief By me will go to the Mandans & hear what they will Say. (we agree'd.)
The verry moment we Set out to go down we will Send out my Brother to bring all the Nation in the open prarie to See me part on this Great mission to See my Great father.
our people hunting Shall be glad to here of your being here & they will all Come to See, as you Cannot Stay they must wate for your return to See you, we are pore take pity on our wants
The road is for you all to go on, who do you think will injure a white man when they come to exchange for our Roabes & Beaver
after you Set out many nations in the open plains may Come to make war against us, we wish you to Stop their guns & provent it if possible. Finished
3d Chief of Ricares
My fathers I will see the Indians below & See if they have the hart as they tell you
The nation below is the Mahas & Ottes & but one nation, (the Souix) has not a good heart.
I always look at the 1 t Chief & the 2d whin they go & will also follow ther example & go on also
You See those 2 men they are chiefs, when I go they will take Care, they beleve your words.
Mabie we will not tell the trooth, as to the Child perhaps they will not wish to go.
My Children the old women & men whin I return I can then give them, Some a Knife Some powder & others Ball &c. What is the matter if we was to go for nothing my great Chief wish to go, I wish to go also.
when I go to See my Grand father I wish to return quicke for fear of my people being uneasy.
my Children are Small & perhaps will be uneasy whin I may be Safe
I must go, I also wish to go, perhaps I may when I return make my people glad
I will Stay at home & not go to War even if my people are Struck
we will believ your word but I fear the Indians above will not believe your word.
I will think that 1/2 of the men who will return will Stay in this Village 1/2 below in the other villages
what did the Seaus tell you- (we informd them)
[Clark, October 13, 1804]
13th of October Satturday 1804 - Newmon Confined for Mutinous expressions, proceeded on passed a Camp of Sioux on the S. S. those people did not Speak to us. passed a Creek on the S. S. 18 miles above the Ricaras I call Stone Idol Creek, this Creek heads in a Small lake at no great distance, near which there is a Stone to which the Indians asscribe great virtue &. &c. at 21 Miles passed a Creek 15 yds wide on the L. S I call Pocasse, we observed great quantites of grapes, a fine Breez from S E Camped on the L. S. Some rain thus evening, we formed a Court Martial of 7 of our party to Try Newmon, they Senteenced him 75 Lashes and banishment from the party- The river narrow current jentle & wood plenty on the Bottoms the up land is as usial Open divircified plains, generally rich & leavel.
[Clark, October 13, 1804]
13th of October Satturday 1804 - one man J. Newmon Confined for mutinous expression Set out early proceeded on, passd. a Camp of Seauex on the S. S. those people only viewed us & did not Speak one word- The visiters of last evening all except one returned which is the Brother of the Chief we have on board passed (1) a Creek on the S. S. 13 yds. at 18 me. above the Town heading in Some Ponds a Short Diste. to the N. E we call Stone Idol C. (well to observe here that the Yankton or R Jacque heads at about 2 Days March of this place Easterly, the R de Seauex one Day further, the Chien a branch of R. Rouche Still beyend, and the River St. Peters 4 Days March from this place on the Same direction Informtn. of the Rickores). passed 2 large willow (2) & Sand Islands above the mouth of the last Creek- at 21 miles above the Village passed a (3) Creek about 15 yards wide on the L. S. we Call after 2d Chief Pocasse (or Hay) nearly opposit this creek a fiew miles from the river on the S. S. 2 Stones resembling humane persons & one resembling a Dog is Situated in the open Prarie, to those Stone the Rickores pay Great reverance make offerings whenever they pass (Infomtn. of the Chief & Intepeter) those people have a Curious Tredition of those Stones, one was a man in Love, one a Girl whose parents would not let marry, the Dog went to mourn with them all turned to Stone gradually, Commenceing at the feet. Those people fed on grapes untill they turned, & the woman has a bunch of grapes yet in her hand on the river near the place those are Said to be Situated, we obsd. a greater quantity of fine grapes than I ever Saw at one place.
The river about the Island on which the lower Rickores Village is Situated is narrow and Conts. a great propotion of Timber than below, the bottoms on both Sides is Covered with timber the up lands naked the Current jentle and Sand bars Confined to the points Generally
We proceeded on under a fine Breeze from the S.E. and Camped late at the upper part of Some wood on the Starboard Side, Cold & Some rain this evening. we Sent out hunters Killed one Deer.
We Tried the Prisoner Newmon last night by 9 of his Peers they did "Centence him 75 Lashes & Disbanded the party."
[Lewis and Clark, October 13, 1804]
Orders 13th of October 1804 - A court Martial to Consist of nine members will set to day at 12 oClock for the trial of John Newman now under Confinement Capt. Clark will attend to the forms & rules of a president without giveing his opinion
Detail for the Court Martial
Sert. John Ordaway
Sergeant Pat. Gass
Capt. 1st U S. Regt. Infty.
Win Clark Capt
or E. N W D
In conformity to the above order the Court martial convened this day for the trial of John Newman, charged with "having uttered repeated expressions of a highly criminal and mutinous nature; the same having a tendency not only to distroy every principle of military discipline, but also to alienate the affections of the individuals composing this Detachment to their officers, and disaffect them to the service for which they have been so sacredly and solemnly engaged."- The Prisonar plead not guilty to the charge exhibited against him. The court after having duly considered the evidence aduced, as well as the defense of the said prisonor, are unanimously of opinion that the prisonar John Newman is guilty of every part of the charge exhibited against him, and do sentence him agreeably to the rules and articles of war, to receive seventy five lashes on his bear back, and to be henceforth discarded from the perminent party engaged for North Western discovery; two thirds of the Court concurring in the sum and nature of the punishment awarded. the commanding officers approve and confirm the sentence of the court, and direct the punishment take place tomorrow between the hours of one and two P.M.- The commanding officers further direct that John Newman in future be attatched to the mess and crew of the red Perogue as a labouring hand on board the same, and that he be deprived of his arms and accoutrements, and not be permited the honor of mounting guard untill further orders; the commanding officers further direct that in lue of the guard duty from which Newman has been exempted by virtue of this order, that he shall be exposed to such drudgeries as they may think proper to direct from time to time with a view to the general relief of the detachment.-
[Clark, October 14, 1804]
14th of October Sunday 1804 - Some rain last night we Set out in the rain which continued all day passed a Creek on the L. S. Piaheto 15 yds Wide, halted on a Sand bar and had the punishmt inflicted on Newmon, which caused the indian Chieif to cry untill the thing was explained to him Camped opposit an antient fortification which is on the L. S, when I explained to the Chief the Cause of whipping N- he observed that examples were necessary & that he himself had made them by Death, but his nation never whiped even from their bearth.
[Clark, October 14, 1804]
14th of October Sunday 1804. Some rain last night all wet & Cold, we Set early the rain contind all Day at ____ miles we passed a (1) Creek in the L. S. 15 yards wide this Creek we Call after the 3rd Chief Piaheto (or Eagles feather) at 1 oClock we halted on a Sand bar & after Dinner executed the Sentence of the Court Martial So far as giveing the Corporal punishment, & proceeded on a fiew miles, the wind a head from N. E. Camped in a Cove of the bank on the S. S. imediately opposit our Camp on the L. Side I observe an antient fortification the walls of which appear to be 8 or 10 feet high, the evening wet and disagreeable, the river Something wider more timber on the banks
The punishment of this day allarmd. the Indian Chief verry much, he Cried aloud (or effected to Cry) I explained the Cause of the punishment and the necessity He thought examples were also necessary, & he himself had made them by Death, his nation never whiped even their Children, from their burth.
This site includes some historical materials that may imply negative stereotypes reflecting the culture or language of a particular period or place. These items are presented as part of the historical record and should not be interpreted to mean that the WebMasters in any way endorse the stereotypes implied.
The Journals of Lewis and Clark, 1804-1806