[Clark, November 12, 1804]
12th November Monday 1804 a verry Cold night early this morning the Big White princapal Chief of the lower Village of the Mandans Came Down, he packd about 100 W. of fine meet on his Squar for us, we made Some Small presents to the Squar, & Child gave a Small ax which She was much pleased- 3 men Sick with the ____ Several, Wind Changeable verry cold evening, freesing all day Some ice on the edges of the river.
Swans passing to the South, the Hunters we Sent down the river to hunt has not returned
The interpeter Says that the Mandan nation as they old men Say Came out of a Small lake where they had Gardins, maney years ago they lived in Several Villages on the Missourie low down, the Smallpox destroyed the greater part of the nation and reduced them to one large Village and Some Small ones, all nations before this maladey was affrd. of them after they were reduced the Sioux and other Indians waged war, and killed a great maney, and they moved up the Missourie, those Indians Still continued to wage war, and they moved Still higher, untill they got in the Countrey of the Panias, whith this ntn. they lived in friendship maney years, inhabiting the Same neighbourhood untill that people waged war, They moved up near the watersoons & winataree where they now live in peace with those nations, the mandans Specke a language peculial to themselves
they can rase about 350 men, the Winatarees about 80 and the Big bellies about 600 or 650 men. the mandans and Seauex have the Same word for water-The Big bellies Winitarees & ravin Indians Speake nearly the Same language and the presumption is they were origionally the Same nation The Ravin Indians have 400 Lodges & about 1200 men, & follow the Buffalow, or hunt for their Subsistance in the plains & on the Court not & Rock Mountains, & are at war with the Sioux Snake Indians
The Big bellies & Watersoons are at war with the Snake Indians & Seauex, and were at war with the Ricares untill we made peace a fiew days passd.- The Mandans are at War with all who make war on them, at present with the Seauex only, and wish to be at peace with all nations, Seldom the agressors-
[Clark, November 13, 1804]
13th The Ice begin to run we move into our hut, visited by the Grand Chief of the Mandans, and Che chark Lagru a Chief of the Assinniboins & 7 men of that Nation, I Smoke with them and gave the Chief a Cord & a Carrot of Tobacco- this Nation rove in the Plains above this and trade with the British Companes on the Ossinniboin River, they are Divided into Several bands, the decendants of the Sioux & Speak nearly their langguage a bad disposed Set & Can raies about moo men in the 3 bands near this place, they trade with the nations of this neighbourhood for horses Corn & Snow all Day Capt. L. at the village.
[Clark, November 13, 1804]
13th Novr. Tuesday 1804 The Ice began to run in the river 1/2 past 10 oClock P. M we rose early & onloaded the boat before brackfast except, the Cabin, & Stored away in a Store house- at 10 oClock A M the Black Cat the Mandin Chief and Lagru Che Chark Chief & 7 men of note visited us at Fort Mandan, I gave him a twist of Tobacco to Smoke with his people & a Gold Cord with a view to Know him again, The nation Consists of about 600 men, hunt in the Plains & winter and trade on the Ossiniboin River, they are Decendants of the Siaux and Speake their language, they Come to the nations to this quarter to trade or (make preasthts) for horses the method of this Kind of Trafick by addoption Shall be explained hereafter &, Snow'd all day, the Ice ran thick and air Cold.
[Clark, November 14, 1804]
Fort Mandan 14th of November Wednesday 1804 a Cloudy morning, ice runing verry thick river rose 1/2 Inch last night Some Snow falling, only two Indians visit us to day Owing to a Dance at the Village last night in Concluding a Serimoney of adoption, and interchange of property, between the Ossiniboins, Christinoes and the nations of this neighbourhood- we Sent one man by land on hors back to know the reason of the Delay of our hunters, this evening 2 french men who were traping below Came up-with 20 beaver we are compelled to use our Pork which we doe Spearingly for fear of Some falur in precureing a Sufficiency from the Woods.
our Interpeter informs that 70 Lodges one of 3 bands of Assinniboins & Some Crestinoes, are at the Mandan Village. The Crrirstinoes are abt. 300 men Speak the Chipaway-Language, the live near Fort De peare
[Clark, November 15, 1804]
15th of November Thursday 1804 a Cloudy morning, the ice run much thicker than yesterday at 10 oClock G Drewyer & the frenchman we Dispatched yesterday came up from the Hunters, who is incamped about 30 miles below- after a about one hour we Dispatched a man with orders to the hunters to proceed on without Delay thro the floating ice, we Sent by the man Tin, to put on the parts of the Perogue exposed to the ice & a toe roape- The wind Changeable- all hands work at their huts untill 1 oClock at night Swans passing to the South- but fiew fowls water to be Seen- not one Indian Came to our fort to day
[Clark, November 16, 1804]
16th November Friday 1804 a verry white frost all the trees all Covered with ice, Cloudy, all the men move into the huts which is not finishd Several Indians Come to Camp to day, The Ossiniboins is at the Big bellie Camp, Some trouble like to take place between them from the loss of horses &c. as is Said by an old Indian who visited us with 4 buffalow robes & Corn to trade for a pistol which we did not let him have, men imployed untill late in dobing their huts, Some horses Sent down to Stay in the woods near the fort, to prevent the Ossniboins Steeling them
[Clark, November 17, 1804]
17 th November Satturday 1804 a fine morning, last night was Cold, the ice thicker than yesterday, Several Indians visit us, one Chief Stayed all day we are much engaged about our huts.
[Clark, November 18, 1804]
18th Novr. Sunday 1804 a Cold morning Some wind the Black Cat, Chief of the Mandans Came to See us, he made Great inquiries respecting our fashions. he also Stated the Situation of their nation, he mentioned that a Council had been held the day before and it was thought advisable to put up with the resent insults of the Ossiniboins & Christonoes untill they were Convinced that what had been told thim by us, Mr. Evins had deceived them & we might also, he promised to return & furnish them with guns & amunitiion, we advised them to remain at peace & that they might depend upon Getting Supplies through the Channel of the Missouri, but it requred time to put the trade in opperation. The Assiniboins &c have the trade of those nations in their power and treat them badly as the Soux does the Ricarees and they cannot resent for fear of loseing their trade &.
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The Journals of Lewis and Clark, 1804-1806