[Clark, July 30, 1804]
July the 30th Monday - Set out early & proceeded on West 33/4 mes. passd. one pt. to the L. S and one to the S. S. to a Clear open Prarie on the L. S. which is on a rise of about 70 feet higher than the bottom which is also a prarie covered with high grass Plumbs Grape Vine & Hezel-both forming a Bluff to the River, the Lower Prarie is above high water mark at the foot of the riseing ground & below the High Bluff we came to in a grove of timber and formed a Camp raised a flag Pole, and deturmind to waite for the Ottu Indians- The white Horse which we found below Died last night, after posting out the Guards &c. &. Sent out 4 men to hunt I am ingaged in ____ and Drawing off my courses to accompany the map Drawn at White Catfish Camp, Capt. Lewis and my Self walked in the Prarie on the top of the Bluff and observed the most butifull prospects imagionable, this Prarie is Covered with grass about 10 or 12 Inch high, (Land rich) rises about 1/2 a mile back Something higher and is a Plain as fur as Can be Seen, under those high Lands next the river is butifull Bottom interspersed with Groves of timber, the River may be Seen for a great Distance both above & below meandering thro the plains between two ranges of High land which appear to be from 4 to 20 ms. apart, each bend of the river forming a point which Contains tall timber, principally Willow Cotton wood some Mulberry elm Sycamore & ash. the groves Contain walnit coffeenut & Oake in addition & Hickory & Lynn Jo. Fields Killed Brarow or as the Ponie call it Cho car tooch, this animale burrows in the ground & feeds on Bugs and flesh principally the little Dogs of the Prarie, also Something of Vegetable Kind his Shape & Size is like that of a Beever, his head Mouth &c. is like a Dog with its ears Cut off, his tale and hair like that of a Ground hog Something longer and lighter, his interals like a Hogs, his Skin thick & loose, white & hair Short under its belly, of the Species of the Bear, and it has a white Streake from its nose to its Sholders, the Toe nails of its fore feet which is large is 1 Inch and 3/4 qtr. long and those of his hind feet which is much Smaller is 3/4 long. We have this animale Skined and Stuffed. Short legs, raseing himself just above the ground when in motion Jo & R. fields Killed Som Deer at a Distance and Came in for a horse to bring them in, they have not returned this evening, a gred number of Swans in a pond above L. S. to our Camp. Serjt. Floyd verry unwell a bad Cold &c. Several men with Boils, great qts. of Catfish G. D. Cought one Small Beever alive. Som Turkey & Gees Killed to day. arms & all things in order. a fair evining, and Cool.
[Clark, July 30, 1804]
July 30th Monday 1804 - Set out this morning early proceeded on to a Clear open Prarie on the L. S. on a rise of about 70 feet higher than the bottom which is also a Prarie both forming Bluffs to the river of High Grass & Plumb bush Grapes &c. and Situated above high water is a Small Grove of timber at the foot of the Riseing Ground between those two priraries, and below the Bluffs of the high Prarie we Came too and formed a Camp, intending to waite the return of the french man & Indians- the white horse which we found near the Kanzeis River, Died Last night
posted out our guard and Sent out 4 men, Captn. Lewis & went up the Bank and walked a Short Distance in the high Prarie. this Prairie is covered with Grass of 10 or 12 inches in hight. Soil of good quallity &, Still further back at the Distance of about a mile the Countrey rises about 80 or 90 feet higher, and is one Continual Plain as fur as Can be Seen, from the Bluff on the 2d rise imediately above our Camp the most butifull prospect of the River up & Down and the Countrey opsd. prosented it Self which I ever beheld; The River meandering the open and butifull Plains, interspursed with Groves of timber, and each point Covered with Tall timber, Such as willow Cotton Sun Mulberry, Elm, Sucamore, Lynn & ash (The Groves Contain Hickory, Walnut, Coffeenut & Oake in addition)
Two ranges of High Land parrelel to each other and from 4 to 10 miles Distant between which the river & its bottoms are Contained. (from 70 to 300 feet high)
Joseph Fields Killed and brought in an Anamale Called by the French Brarow, and by the Ponies Cho car tooch this Anamale Burrows in the Ground and feeds on Flesh, (Prarie Dogs), Bugs, & vigatables- "His Shape & Size is like that of a Beaver, his head mouth &c. is like a Dogs with Short Ears, his Tail and Hair like that of a Ground Hog, and longer, and lighter. his Interals like the interals of a Hog," his Skin thick and loose, his Belly is White and the Hair Short- a white Streek from his nose to his Sholders.
The toe nails of his fore feet is one Inch & 3/4 long, & feet large; the nails of his hind feet 3/4 of an Inch long, the hind feet Small and toes Crooked, his legs are Short and when he Moves Just Suffcent to raise his body above the Ground He is of the Bear Species. we hav his Skin Stuffed
Jo. & R. Fields did not return this evening, Several men with Verry bad Boils- Cat fish is Cought in any part of the river Turkeys Gees & a Beaver Killed & Cought every thing in prime order men in high Spirits. a fair Still evening Great no. misquitors this evening
[Lewis, July 30, 1804]
July the 30th - this day Joseph Fields killed a Braro as it is called by the French engages. this is a singular anamal not common to any part of the United States. it's weight is sixteen pounds.- it is a carniverous anamal. on both sides of the upper jaw is fexed one long and sharp canine tooth.-it's eye are small black and piercing.
[Clark, July 31, 1804]
July 31st Tuesday - a fair Day 3 hunters out this morning G. Drewyer Killed a verry fat Buck one Inch fat on the ribs Merdn. altd Latd. is 41° 18' 0" 5/10-North. R & Jo. Fields returned at 10 oClock the Killed 3 Deer, and lost the horses, Cought a Small Beever which is already taim, Several men out hunting the horses without Sukcess, The Ottoes not yet arrived, I complete the Copy of the Courses &c. &c. Musqueters verry troubleson
[Clark, July 31, 1804]
July 31st, Tuesday - a fair Day three Hunters out, Took meridian altitude made the Lattd. 41° 18' 1" 5/10 N. R. & Jo. Fields returned to Camp They Killed 3 Deer.- The Horses Strayed off last night. Drewyer Killed a Buck one inch of fat on the ribs, R. & Jo. Fields returned without any meet haveing been in persuit of the horses- The Indians not yet arrived. Cought a young Beever alive which is already quit tame-. Cought a Buffalow fish- The evening verry Cool, The Musqutors are yet troublesom.-
[Clark, August 1, 1804]
August the 1st 1804 - a fair morning, Sent out two men after the horses & one back to examine if the Indians have been there, ____ Beever Cought last night, the air is Cool and pleasing
Prepared the Pipe of Peace verry flashey. wind rose at 10 oClock and blowed from the W. S. W. very pleasent all day Several men geathering grapes &c. two men after the horses which Strayed the night before last. those Praries produce the Blue Current Common in the U. S. the Goose Berry Common in the U. S, two Kind of Honeysuckle, the Bush which I have Seen in Kentucky, with a paile Pink flower, also one which grow in Clusters about 4 or 5 feet high bearing a Short flour in clusters of the like Colour. the leaves Single. 3 Deer & an Elk Killed to day. This being my birth day I order'd a Saddle of fat Vennison, an Elk fleece & a Bevertail to be cooked and a Desert of Cheries, Plumbs, Raspberries Currents and grapes of a Supr. quallity. The Indians not yet arrived. a Cool fine eveninge Musquetors verry troublesom, the Praries Contain Cheres, Apple, Grapes, Currents, Rasp burry, Gooseberris Hastlenuts and a great Variety of Plants & flours not Common to the U S. What a field for a Botents and a natirless
[Clark, August 1, 1804]
August the 1st 1804 - a fair morning Despatched two men after the horses lost yesterday, one man back to the place from which the messinger was Sent for the Ottoes to See if any Indians was or had been there Since our deptr. he return'd and informed that no person had been there Sence we left it. The Prarie which is Situated below our Camp is above the high water leavel and rich Covered with Grass from 5 to 8 feet high intersperced with Copse of Hazel, Plumbs, Currents (like those of the U.S.) Rasberries & Grapes of Dift. Kinds. also produceing a Variety of Plants and flowers not Common in the United States, two Kind of honey Suckle one which grows to a kind of a Srub. Common about Harrods burgh in Kentucky the other are not So large or tall and bears a flower in Clusters Short and of a light Pink Colour, the leaves differ from any of the othe Kind in as much as the Lieves are Distinkd & does not Surround the Stalk as all the other Kind does one Elk and three Deer Killed to day also two Beever Cought
The wind rose at 10 oClock from the W. S. W. and blew a Steedy and agreeable Breeze all Day.
The Musqutors verry troublesom this evening in the bottoms.
Took equal altitudes to day and the azmuth with the Commencement of the A.M.
[Clark, August 2, 1804]
August 2nd 1804 - wind from the SE G. Drewery returned with the horses & one Doe Elk the countrey thro which he passed is like what we See from the Bluff above Camp three men out Hunting one Beaver caught this morning.
at Sunset 6 chiefs and their warries of the Ottos, and Missoures, with a french man by the name of Far fonge, we Shook hands and gave them Some Tobacco & Provisions, they Sent us Water Millions Three verry large & fat Bucks Killed to day the wind Continue hard from the S. E.-the 4 qtr. of one Buck weigh'd 147 wt 11/2 Inch fat on the ribs
[Clark, August 2, 1804]
August 2nd Thursday 1804 - A verry pleasent Breeze from the S. E. The Two men Drewyer & Colter returned with the horses loaded with Elk, those horses they found about 12 miles in a Southerly Derection from Camp.
The Countrey thro which they passed is Similar to what we See from Camp. one Beaver & a foot of Beaver caught in trap Cought this morning at Sunset Mr. Fairfong and a pt. of Otteau & Missourie Nation Came to Camp, among those Indians 6 were Chiefs, the principal Chiefs Capt. Lewis & myself met those Indians & informed them we were glad to See them, and would Speak to them tomorrow, Sent them Som rosted meat Pork flour & meal, in return they Sent us Water millions. every man on his Guard & ready for any thing Three fat Bucks Killed this evening the 4 qtrs. of one weighed 147 lbs.
[Lewis, August 2, 1804]
August 2ed 1804. - This day one of our Hunters brought me a white Heron. this bird as an inhabitant of ponds and Marasses, and feeds upon tadpoles, frogs, small fish &c- they are common to the Mississipi and the lower part of the ohio River, (ie) as high as the falls of that river.
this bird weighed two lbs.- it's plumage is perfectly white and very thin
F I. from extremity of beak to the extremity of toe 4 71/4 from tipp to tip of wing on the back 4 11
it's beak is yellow pointed, flated crosswise and 5 Inches in length from the upper region of the bill to the eye is one inch in length, covered with a smoth yellow skin the plumage of the head projecting towards the upper bill and coming to a point a an Inch beyond the eyes on the center of the upper bill. The mouth opens to distance of the eyes- The eye is full and projecting reather, it is 7/10 of half an inch. four joints in the wing
1st joint from body in length - 6
2ed Do. - 81/4
3rd Do. - 31/2
4th Do. - 1
1st joint Number of feathers - 7; Length of - 3
2nd - 18; 6
3 - 6; from 10 to 12
4th - 5; 12
it's legs are black- the neck and beak occupy 1/2 it's length. it has four toes on a foot- the outer toe on the right foot is from the joining of the leg to extremity of toe nale 4 Inch & 1/4 has four joints exclusive of the nail joint- the next is 43/4 inches has three joints exclusive of the nale joint. the next is 33/4 and has two joints, the heel toe has one joint only and is 3 Inches in length. the nails are long sharp and black- the eye is of a deep seagreen colour, with a circle of of pale yellow around the sight forming a border to the outer part of the eye of about half the width of the whole eye. the tale has 12 feathers of six inches in length.- the wings when folded are the same length with the tale.
has 2 remarkable tufts of long feathers on each side joining the body at the upper joint of the wing. these cover the feathers of the 1st joint of the wings when they are over extended
[Clark, August 3, 1804]
August 3rd Friday - prepare a Small preasent for those Indians and hold a Councul Delivered a Speech & made 8 6 chief ... gave a fiew preasents and, a Smoke a Dram, Some Powder & Ball- the man we Sent not yet come up, Those people express great Satisfaction at the Speech Delivered they are no Oreters, big, open Counternances, ottoes large Missor Small
at 4 oClock Set out under a gentle Breeze from the S. E proceeded on N. 5° E 5 Ms. Passed a Pt. on the S. S. and round a large Sand bar on the L. S. and Camped above, below a great number of Snags quit across the river, The Musquitors more numerous than I ever Saw them, all in Spirrits, we had Some rough Convasation G. Dr. about boys.
The Osage & Kansies are the Same language
the Ottoes & Mahars Speek many words of the Osarge language
The Ottos, Aiaways, & Missouries Speake the Same language the Panies & Recreries Speak the Same language also the Loups & repub. the Mahar, & Poncarar the Same Language The Cheaun, Mandin & Grovanter the Same The Probibility is that those defferant tribes have once formed 3 great nats. Viz: the Missouries, Osarge, Kanzes, Ottoes, Mahars, & Poncaras & Aiauaies one nation.
The Panies, Loups, Republican, Recrerees the 2nd
The Mandans Cheeons, & Grovanters the 3rd The tribes of the Soux all retain the name 4th
It is possible that the, Mahar & Poncarear may have been a Distinct nation, as they only Speek Some words of the osage which have the Same Signification 25 Days to St Ta fee S. of W. Cross the heads of Arkansies around the head of Kanzies River after Delivering a Speech informing thos Children of ours of the Change which had taken place, the wishes of our government to Cultivate friendship & good understanding, the method of have good advice & Some Directions, we made 1 Great Chief to the who was not present, to whom we adresed the Speech & Sent Some presents or Meadels & flag, we made 2 Second Chiefs one for the Missouris & another for the Ottos (those two tribes are nearly equal 1'70 each) and 4 principal men, to thos principal men to thos we gave a Small Comtn. to each man to whom we gave authority, a preasn of Br. Ch. Gart. g. Paint & a med. or Contn a Small Corns. was delivered for the whole each Chief & principal man delivered a Speech acknowledging ther approbation to what they had heard and promised to prosue the good advice and Caustion, they were happy w new fathers who gave good advice & to be Depended on all Concluded by asking a little Powder & a Drop of Milk.
I answered those Speeches gave them 50 balls one Canister of Powder & a Dram- after Cap Lewis Shot his air gun a few times which astonished the nativs, we Set Sail. recved from thos people water millions & The Cheifs & Principal men of the Ottoes & Missouris made by M L. & W C the 3rd August 1804
|Viz.||Indian Names||Tribe||English Signifiation|
|2.||Shingo-ton go||Otto||Big horse|
|We tha a||Missourie||Hospatallity|
|Ba Za con ja||Ottoe|
from this place I am told by
Mr. Faufong the interpeter that it will take
a man 25 Days to go to St. a fee pass, the
heads of Arkansas, round the Kansas head,
across Some mountains from the top of which
the City may be Seen the Spaniards have
envited those Indians & the Panies to trade
with them & Some french & a few indians are
gorn from the Panias to that City this
The Situation of this place which we Call Council Bluff which is handsom ellevated a Spot well Calculated for a Tradeing establishment, the Bank high & leavel on top well Calculated for a fort to Command the Countrey and river the low bottom above high water & well Situated under the Command of the Hill for Houses to trade with the Natives a butifull Plain both abov and below at no other bend on either Side does the High land touch the river for Some distance up, as I am told.
those Bluffs afford good Clay for Brick, a great quantity on the 3 points one Opsd. one abov &one below.- the Situation I am informed is, within 1 Days march of the Ottoes, 11/2 of the Panias, 2 of the Mahars, & 21/2 of the Loups Villages, also Convenient to the roveing Bands of Soux, Those people are now at war with each other, an establishment here would bring about peace and be the means of Keeping of it.
Augt. 3d Camped on the upper point of a large Sand bar L. S. Misquters verry bad. Some place near Conncill Bluff will be the most proper place for a tradeing establishment, for maney of the nations, the distance is to the Ottoes one Days, Ponies 11/2 days, to the Mahar, 2 days, to Loups 2 Days & a half 16 or 1800 men-and convenient for Some bands of the Sues,
[Clark, August 3, 1804]
August 3rd, Friday 1804 made up a Small preasent for those people in perpotion to their Consiqunce. also a package with a meadile to accompany a Speech for the Grand Chief after Brackfast we Collected those Indians under an orning of our Main Sail, in presence of our Party paraded & Delivered a long Speech to them expressive of our journey the wirkes of our Government, Some advice to them and Directions how They were to Conduct themselves, the princapal Chief for the nation being absente we sent him the Speech flag Meadel & Some Cloathes. after hering what they had to say Delivered a medal of Second Grade to one for the Ottos & and one for the Missourie present and 4 medals of a third Grade to the inferior Chief two for each tribe. Those two parts of nations, Ottos & Missouries now residing together is about 250 men are the Ottoes Composeing 2/3d and Missourie 1/3 part
The names of the Chiefs we acknowledged Made this day are as follows Viz
|Indian name||Tribe||English signftn.|
|1st||We ar ruge nor||Ottoe||Called Little Theif|
|2||Shon go ton go||" "||Big Horse|
|We the a||Miss.||Hospatality|
|Shon Guss Con||Ottoe||White horse|
|Wau pe uh||M.|
|Ah ho ning ga||M.|
|Baza cou ja||Ottoe|
|Ah ho ne ga||M.|
Those Chiefs all Delivered a
Speech acknowledgeing Their approbation to
the Speech and promissing to prosue the
advice & Derictions given them that they wer
happy to find that they had fathers which
might be depended on &c.
We gave them a Cannister of Powder and a Bottle of whiskey and delivered a few presents to the whole after giveing a Br. Cth. Some Paint guartering & a Meadele to those we made Cheifs after Capt Lewis's Shooting the air gun a feiw Shots (which astonished those nativs) we Set out and proceeded on five miles on a Direct line passed a point on the S. S. & round a large Sand bar on the L. S. & Camped on the upper point. The Misquitors excessively troublesom this evening Great appearance of wind and rain to the N. W. we prepare to rec've it- The man Liberty whome we Sent for the Ottoes has not Come up he left the Ottoes Town one Day before the Indians. This man has eithered tired his horse or, lost himself in the Plains Some Indians are to hunt for him, The Situation of our last Camp Councill Bluff or Handssom Prarie appears to be a verry proper place for a Tradeing establishment & fortification The Soil of the Bluff well adapted for Brick, Great deel of timbers abov in the two Points. many other advantages of a Small nature. and I am told Senteral to Several nations Viz. one Days march from the Ottoe Town, one Day & a half from the great Pania village, 2 days from the Mahar Towns, two 1/4 Days from the Loups Village, & Convenient to the Countrey thro which Bands of the Soux hunt. perhaps no other Situation is as well Calculated for a Tradeing establishment. The air is pure and helthy So far as we can judge.-
[Clark, August 4, 1804]
August 4th at 7 oClock - the heavens darkened and a violent wind from the N W. Suckceeded which lasted about an hour, with a little rain.
Set out this morning early thro a narrow part of the, the whole Channel Confined in Some parts between the (1) Sand on one Side & the bank on the other (which is washing in) within 200 yards, this Chanl. Crouded with Snags. at 11/2 m. passed an old tradeing house L. S. where one of our Crew passed 2 years P. C tradeing with the Mahar; & Ponies-above 1 me. a (3) Creek Coms in opsd. a large bad (2) Sand bar this (3) Creek is the outlett of 3 ponds, which recved ther water from the Smaller Streams running from the hills on the L. S, Great qts. of Gees, passed in the next bend L. S. an out let to the Pond, Butifull bottom Prarie on both Sides of the river, Pumey Stone is found on the Sides of the river of various Sizes. Wind a head. Reed the man who went back to the Camp of last night for his Knife has not Come up this evening-we Camped at a pt. on the L. S. at a Beaver house. 1 Buck Killed to daye.
[Clark, August 4, 1804]
August 4th Satturdaye - Set out early- (at 7 oClock last night we had a Violent wind from the N W Som little rain Succeeded, the wind lasted with violence for one hour after the wind it was clear Sereen and Cool all night.) proceeded on passed thro betwen Snags which was quit across the Rivr the Channel Confined within 200 yards one Side a Sand pt. S S. the other a Bend, the Banks washing away & trees falling in constantly for 1 mile, abov this place is the remains of an old Tradeing establishment L. S. where Petr. Crusett one of our hands Stayed two years & traded with the Mahars a Short distance above is a Creek (3) the out let of Three Ponds comunicateing with each other, those Ponds or rether Lakes are fed by Springs & Small runs from the hills. (2) a large Sand Island opposit this Creek makeing out from the L. Point, from the Camp of last night to this Creek, the river has latterly Changed its bed incroaching on the L. Side, in this Sand bar I Saw great Nos. of wild gees- passed a Small Creek on the L. S about 3 miles above the last both of those Creek's are out lets from the Small Lake which reive their water from the Small Streems running from the high land- great many Pamey Stones on the Shore of various Sises the wind blew hard- Reed a man who went back to Camp for his knife has not joined us. we camped at a Beaver house on the L. S.one Buck Killed to day-
[Clark, August 5, 1804]
August 5th - Set out early wind from N E. Great appearance of Wind & rain, (I have remarked that I have not heard much thunder in this Countrey) a verry large Snake was Killed to day called the Bull Snake, his Colour Some thing like a rattle Snake Something lighter- the bends of the river to day is washing away the banks, haveing nothing to oppose the turbelance of the river when Confined by large hard Sand Points, forceing this Current against the bends- the Soil of the entire bottom between the high land, being the mud or Ooze of the river of Some former period mixed with Sand & Clay easely melts and Slips, or washies into the river the mud mixes with the water & the Sand collects on the points Camped on the S. S.- I went on Shore S. S. this evening Saw Some turkeys and in persueing them Struk the river 12 miles below the place by water I went out, I think the Peninsuly is about 370 yards across Subjuct to overflow; & washes into numerous Channels, Great quantities of Graps ripe & of three Defferent Kind Some large & fine. I Killed a Turkey, and made Camp in the Night, Musqutors verry troubleson- Reed the man who went back for his Knife has not yet joined us
[Clark, August 5, 1804]
5th of August Sunday 1804 - Set out early great appearance of wind and rain (I have observed that Thundor & lightning is not as common in this Countrey as it is in the atlantic States) Snakes are not plenty, one was killed to day large and resembling the rattle Snake only Something lighter-. I walked on Shore this evening S. S. in Pursueing Some Turkeys I struck the river twelve miles below within 370 yards, the high water passes thro this Peninsulia; and agreeable to the Customary Changes of the river I Concld. that in two years the main Current of the river will pass through. In every bend the banks are falling in from the Current being thrown against those bends by the Sand points which inlarges and the Soil I believe from unquestionable appearns. of the entire bottom from one hill to the other being the mud or ooze of the River at Some former Period mixed with Sand and Clay easily melts and Slips into the River, and the mud mixes with the water & the Sand is washed down and lodges on the points- Great quantites of Grapes on the banks, I observe three different Kinds at this time ripe, one Of the no. is large & has the flaver of the Purple grape. camped on the S. S. the Musquitors verry troubleson. The man who went back after his Knife has not yet come up, we have Some reasons to believe he has Deserted
[Lewis, August 5, 1804]
August 5th 1804 - Killed a serpent on the bank of the river adjoining a large prarie.
Length from nose to tail 5 2
Circumpherence in largest part- 41/2
Number of scuta on belly- 221
Do. on Tale- 53
No pison teeth therefore think him perfectly inocent- eyes, center black with a border of pale brown yellow Colour of skin on head yellowish green with black specks on the extremity of the scuta which are pointed or triangular colour of back, transverse stripes of black and dark brown of an inch in width, succeeded by a yellowish brown of half that width the end of the tale hard and pointed like a cock's spur the sides are speckled with yellowish brown and black.- two roes of black spots on a lite yellow ground pass throughout his whole length on the upper points of the scuta of the belly and tale 1/2 Inch apart this snake is vulgarly called the cow or bull snake from a bellowing nois which it is said sometimes to make resembling that anamal, tho as to this fact I am unable to attest it never having heard them make that or any other noise myself.
I have frequently observed an acquatic bird in the cours of asscending this river but have never been able to procure one before today, this day I was so fortunate as to kill two of them, they are here more plenty than on the river below. they lay their eggs on the sand bars without shelter or nest, and produce their young from the 15th to the last of June, the young ones of which we caught several are covered with down of a yellowish white colour and on the back some small specks of a dark brown. they bear a great resemblance to the young quale of ten days oald, and apear like them to be able to runabout and peck their food as soon as they are hatched- this bird, lives on small fish, worms and bugs which it takes on the virge of the water it is seldom seen to light on trees an quite as seldom do they lite in the water and swim tho the foot would indicate that they did it's being webbed I believe them to be a native of this country and probly a constant resident.
the weight of the male bird is one ounce and a half, its length from beak to toe 71/2 inches from tip to tip of wing across the back one foot seven inches and a half the beak is one 1/8 inch lonong, large where it joins the head Elated on the sides and tapering to a sharp point, a little declining and curvated, a fine yellow, with a shade of black on the extremity of upper beak; the eye is prominent, black and on a angular scale of 1/2 Inc; occupyse 3 1/3 in width. the upper part of the head is black from the beak as low as the middle of the eye and a little below the joining of the neck except however some white which joins the upper part of the beak which forks and passing over the sides of the forehead terminate above each eye- the under part of the bird, that is the throat and cheeks as high as the eye, the neck brest belly and under part of the wings and tail are of a fine white, the upper part of the neck, back, and wings are of a fine, quaker colour, or bright dove colour with reather more of a bluish tint-except however the three first or larger feathers in the wing which on upper side are of a deep black. the wing has four joints
|No. Joint||Length of joint||No. of feathers||Length of do.|
|1||11/2||a Clump of feathers not strong but loosly connect with the flesh of the wing||11/2|
|3||11/2||7||from 21/2 to 41/2|
the tail has eleven feathers the outer of which are an inch longer than those in the center gradually tapering inwards which gives the tale a forked appearance like that of the swally the largest or outer feather is 23/4 that of the shortest 13/4- the leg and thye are three inches long the leg occupying one half this length the thye is covered with feathers except about 1/4 of an inch above the knee the leg is of a bright yellow and nails long sharp and black the foot is webbed and has three toes forward; the heel or back toe is fixed to the leg above the palm of the foot, and is unconnected by a web to the other toes, it has no nail. the wings when foalded lap like those of the swallow and extend at least an inch and a half beyond the tale. this bird is very noysey when flying which is dose exttreemly swift the motion of the wing is much like that of kildee it has two notes one like the squaking of a small pig only on reather a high kee, and the other kit'-tee'-kit'-tee'- as near as letters can express the sound- the beak of the female is black and the black and quaker colour of the male in her is yellowish brown mixed with dove colour
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The Journals of Lewis and Clark, 1804-1806