[Clark, July 16, 1804]
July 16 1804 Monday - Set out verry early and proceeded on the Side of a Prarie passd the head of the Island opsd. which we Camped last night, (1) passed a Small willow Island off the L. point, hills make near the river (2) passed a large Island nearest the L. S. below the pt. a Small willow Isd. also one on the Side. this large Island is called fair Sun the wind favourable from the South. Boat run on a Sawyer, (4) pass a place on the L. S. where the hill abt. 20 acres has Sliped into the river lately just above passed under a clift of Sand Stone L. S. a number of Burds Nests in the holes & crevises of this rock which Continus 2 miles, (5) passed a willow Island in a Deep bend to the S. S. river 2 mile wide at this place, note Deed Snags across, passed the Lower point of a Island called Isle Chauvin Situated on the L. Point opposit an extensive Prarie on the S. S., This prarie I call Ball pated Prarie from the range ball hills, at from 3 to 6 miles from the river as far as my Sight will extend, we camped in a point of woods opsd. the Isd. on S. S. in a bend.
[Clark, July 16, 1804]
July 16th Monday 1804 - Set out this morning verry early and proceeded on under a gentle breeze from the S passed the upper point of the Island an extensive Prarie on the L. S. passed a large (1) Island Called Fair Sun Isd. a Small willow Isld. at the lower point on the L. S. the boat passd on the L. S. of those Islands Several Small Sand Islands in the Channel, the Boat run on the point of a Snag, (2) passed a place above the Island L. S. where about 20 acres of the hill has latterly Sliped into the river above a clift of Sand Stone for about two miles, the resort of burds of Different Kinds to reare their young. (5) Passed a willow Island in a Deep Bend to the S. S. opposit the river is about two miles wide, and not verry Deep as the Snag may be Seen across, Scattering, passed the Lower point of an Island called by French Chauvin's Situated off the L. Point opposit an extensive Prarie on the S. S. This Prarie I call Ball gated Prarie, from a range of Ball Hills parrelel to the river & at from 3 to 6 miles distant from it, and extends as far up & Down as I Can See, we Camped in a point of woods on the L. S. above the Lower point of the Island. river falling.
[Lewis, July 16, 1804]
Monday 16th - we set out at an early hour; the morning was cloudy; could find no convenient situation for observation; proceeded untill a little before noon when we came too On the Lard. Shore opposite to the center of good Island where I observed the meridian altitude of O's L. L. with Octant by the back observation, wich gave me the Latitude- 40° 20' 12" N.
I now set the Chronometer as near noon as this observation would enable me, and proceeded untill evening, when we came too on the Stard. shore opposite the lower point of the Island of the Bald prarie where we encamped.
[Clark, July 17, 1804]
July 17th Tuesday, - we concluded to lay by today to fix the Longitude, and get the Cronometer right, (She run down Day before yesterday), Several men out hunting to day Capt. Lewis rode out to Neesh-nahba-to na Creek which passes thro. the Prarie (on which there is Some few trees) within ____ Mile of the Missoureis, wind from the S E. Several of the party have tumers of different Kinds Some of which is verry troublesom and dificuilty to cure. I took a meridian altitude (43° 27') which made the Lattitude of this place 40° 27' 6" 4/10 North.- (The Ball Hills bear N 25° W for 30 mes. The bend on L. S. passing the Isd. on the right Side is N. 28° W. 4 ms.) Took equal altitudes Tried a part of the comn pt. of the Current in 40 Seconds the water run 50 fathem 30" & 20" in places
Cap Lewers returned, Saw Some hand Som Countrey, the Creek near the high land is rapid and nearly as muddy as the river, & rising Gutrich caught two verry fat Cat fish G Drewyer Killed 3 Deer, & R Fields one, a puff of wind brought Swarms of Misquitors, which disapeared in two hours, blown off by a Continuation of the Same brees.
[Clark, July 17, 1804]
Bald Pated Prarie July 17th, Tuesday 1804 - We Concluded lay by at this place to day to fix the Lattitude & Longitude of this place to Correct the cromometer run down Sunday) Several men out by day light hunting Capt. Lewis Concid. to ride out to Neesh-nah-ba-to-na Creek which passes under the ball hills near this place and at one place a little above this Camp is within 300 yards of the Missouris on this Creek grows Some few trees of oake walnut & mulberry. I took Meridian altitude of sun L. L. (43° 27') which made the Lattitude 40° 27' 5" 4/10 North- wind from the South E. Several of the party much aflicted with turners of different Kinds, Som of which is verry troublesom and dificuelt to cure. Capt. Louis returned in the evening. he Saw Som hand Some Countrey & Says that the aforesaid Creek is rapid muddey and running- This Creek which is at 10 or 12 from its mouth, within 300 yds of the river is at least 16 foot Lower than the river- The high Lands from our Camp in this Bald Pated Prarie bears N 25° W. up the R.
The Common Current taken with a Log runs 50 fathen in 40"Some places much Swifter in 30" and even 20 Seconds of time- five Deer killed to day
[Clark, July 18, 1804]
July 18th Wednesday - a fair morning the river falling fast, Set out at Sunrise under a gentle Breeze from S. E by S. at 3 miles passed the head of the Island on L. S. called by the French Chauve or bald pate (1) opsd. the middle of this Island the Creek on L. S. is within 300 yds. of the river. back of this Island the lower point of (2) another Island in the bend to the L. S. passed large Sand bar making out from each point with many channels passing through them, "Current runs 50 fathm. in 41 Seconds" but little timber on either Side of the river, except the Isds. & points which are low wet & Covered with lofty trees, Cotton wood Mulberry Elm &c. &c. passed the head of a long Island in high water at this time no water passes thro the Channel (3) opposit the Lower point of a Island on the L. S. pass the Island and opsd. the point (4) above & on the L. S. the hills come to the river, This Hill has Sliped into the river for about 3/4 of a mile, and leaves a Bluff of considerable hight back of it this Hill is about 200 foot high compsd. of Sand Stone inter mingled with Iron ore of an inferior quallity on a bed of Soft Slate Stone.
We passed a verry bad Sand bar (4) a little above the hill and incmpd on the L. S. opposit a Small Island in the river, Saw a Dog this evening appeared to be nearly Starved to death, he must have been left by Some party of Hunters we gave him Some meet, he would not come near, G Drewrer brought in 2 Deer this evening
[Clark, July 18, 1804]
July 18th Wednesday 1804 - a fair morning the river falling fast Set out this morning at Sun rise under a Gentle Breeze from the S. E. by S. passing over the Prarie, at about 3 Miles we passed the head of the Island L. S. Called by the French Chaube or Bald pate opposit the middle of (1) This Island the Creek on the S. S. is nearest the river, In high water an Island is formed in the bind above the last (2)-Measured the Current and found that in forty one Seconds it run yo fathoms but little timber is to be Seen except in the Low points on Islands & on Creeks, the Groth of timber is generally cotton Mulberry Elm Sycomore &c &c. passed a Island on the 2d point to the S. S. opposite the water (3) whin high passes out in the Plain oppsid this Island on the L. S. the hills jut to the river (4) this Hill has Sliped from the top which forms a Bluff above & 200 foot above the water, about 3/4 of a mile in length & about 200 feet in Depth has Sliped into the river it is Composed of Sand Stone intermixed with an indiffert. Iron ore near the bottom or next to the water is a Soft Slate Stone, Som pebble is also intermixt, we passed a verry bad Sand bar and incamped on the L. S. at the lower point of the oven Islands & opposit the Prarie Calld. by the french Four le Tourtue Saw a Dog nearly Starved on the bank, gave him Som meet, he would not follow, our hunters killed 2 Deer to day
[Clark, July 19, 1804]
July 19th - after breakfast which was on a rosted Ribs of a Deer a little and a little Coffee I walked on Shore intending only to Keep up with the Boat, Soon after I got on Shore, Saw Some fresh elk Sign, which I was induced to prosue those animals by their track to the hills after assending and passing thro a narrow Strip of wood Land, Came Suddenly into an open and bound less Prarie, I Say bound less because I could not See the extent of the plain in any Derection, the timber appeared to be confined to the River Creeks & Small branches, this Prarie was Covered with grass about 18 Inches or 2 feat high and contained little of any thing else, except as before mentioned on the River Creeks &c, This prospect was So Sudden & entertaining that I forgot the object of my prosute and turned my attention to the Variety which presented themselves to my view after continueing on this rise for Some minits, I deturmined to make my course to a line of woods to S. E. I found in this wood a butifull Streem of running water, in prosuing it down Several others Joined it and at 3 miles fell into the river between 2 clifts, I went up & under one clift of dark rich Clay for 1/2 me. above this a Clay bank which had Sliped in here I found Sand Stone Containing Iron ore, this ore appears to be inbeded under the Clay just above the water
[Clark, July 19, 1804]
July 19th Thursday 1804 - Set out early pass between 2 Islands one in mid. & the other L. S. opsd. wher Prarie aproaches the river S. S. This place is called the Bakers oven or in french Four le Tour tere passd. Some highlands 41/2 ms. above the Isds. on the L. S. forming a Clift to the river of yellow earth, on the top a Prarie, passd. many a bad Sand bar in this distance, & the river wide & Shallow, above this Clift 2 Small butiffull runs Come from the Plains & fall into the river, a Deer lick on the first, above those two Creeks, I found in my walk on Shore Some ore in a bank which had Sliped in to the river 3/4 me. above the Creeks, I took a cerequite around & found that those two runs mentioned contained a good proposion of wood Surrounded by a plain, with grass about 18 Inchs. high, (Capt Lewis walked on Shore after Dinner) in the first bind to the right above those Runs passed a Small Island opsd. is a Sand bar I call this Island Butter Island, as at this place we mad use of the last of our butter, as we approach this Great River Platt the Sand bars are much more noumerous than they were, and the quick & roleing Sands much more danjerous, where the Praries aproach the river it is verry wide, the banks of those Plains being much easier to undermine and fall than the wood land passed (4) a willow Island Situated near the middle of the river, a Sand bar on the S. S. and a Deep bend to the L S. camped on the right Side of the Willow Island-W. Bratten hunting on the L. S Swam to the Island. Hunters Drewyer killed 2 Deer, Saw great numbers of young gees. The river Still falling a little Sand bars thick always in view.
[Clark, July 19, 1804]
July 19th, Thursday 1804 - Set out early passed between two Small Islands, one in the middle of the river, the other Close on the L S. opposit a prarie S. S. Called (1) by the french Four le tourtre, The Bakers oven Islands, passed (2) Some high Clift 41/2 miles above the Islands on the L. S. of yellow earth passed Several Sand bars that were wide and at one place verry Shallow (two Small butifull runs falls into the river near each other at this Clift, a Deer Lick 200 yards up the Lowest of those runs) Those runs head at no great distance in the plains and pass thro of timber to the river. In my walk on Shore I found Some ore in the bank above those runs which I take to be Iron ore (3) at this place the Side of the hill has Sliped about half way into the river for 3/4 of a Mile forming a Clift from the top of the hill above. In the first bend to the right passed a Small Island a Sand bar opposit,- worthey of remark as we approach this great River Plate the Sand bars much more numerous and the quick or moveing Sands much worst than they were below at the places where Praries approach the river it is verry wide those places being much easier to wash & under Mine than the wood Land's. (4) passed a Willow Isd. Situated near the Middle of the river and a large Sand makeing out from the S. S. a Deep bend to the L S. we Camped at the head of this Island on the Starboard Side of it, Hunters Killed Two Deer. Saw great numbers of young Gees River falling a little.
[Clark, July 20, 1804]
July 20th Friday 1804, - a fog this morning and verry Cool George Drewyer Sick proceed on over a Sand bar, Bratten Swam the river to get his gun & Clothes left last night psd a large willow Isd. on the L. S. (1) passed the mouth of l'Eau que pleure the English of which is the water which Cry's this Creek is about 20 yards wide falls into the river above a Gift of brown Clay L. S. opposit a willow Island, at this Creek I went on Shore took R Fields with me and went up this Creek Several miles & crossed thro the plains to the river above with the view of finding Elk, we walked all day through those praries without Seeing any, I killed an emence large yellow Wolf-The Countrey throu which we walked after leaveing the Creek was good land covered with Grass interspersed with Groves & Scattering timber near and about the heads of Branches one of them without Suckcess, Camped above the bar on the L. S. a verry agreeable Breeze all night Serjt. Pryor & Jo. Fields brought in two Deer river Still falling. a large Spring 3/4 me. below camp
[Clark, July 20, 1804]
July 20th, Friday 1804 - a cool morning passed a large willow Island (1) on the S. S. and the mouth of Creek about 25 yds. wide on the L. S. Called by the french l'Eue-que pleure, or the the Water Which Cry's this Creek falls into the river above a Clift of brown Clay opposit the Willow Island, I went out above the mouth of this Creek and walked the greater part of the day thro Plains interspesed with Small Groves of Timber on the branches and Some Scattering trees about the heads of the runs, I Killed a Verry large yellow wolf, The Soil of Those Praries appears rich but much Parched with the frequent fires-" after I returned to the Boat we proceeded around a large Sand bar makeing out from the L. S. opsd. a fountain of water comeing out of a hill L. S. and affording water Suffient to turn a mill
The Praries as far as I was out appeared to be well watered, with Small Streems of running water Serjt. Pryor & Jo. Fields brought in two Deer this evening- a verry Pleasent Breeze from the N. W. all night- river falling a little, It is wothey of observation to mention that our party has been much healthier on the Voyage than parties of the Same Number is in any other Situation Turners have been troublesom to them all
From this evenings incampment a man may walk to the Pane Village on the S bank of the Platt River in two days, and to the Otteaus in one day all those Indians are Situated on the South bank of the Plate River, as those Indians are now out in the praries following & Hunting the buffalow, I fear we will not See them.
[Lewis, July 21, 1804]
July 21, 1804 - by a boiling motion or ebolition of it's waters occasioned no doubt by the roling and irregular motion of the sand of which its bed is entirely composed. the particles of this sand being remarkably small and light it is easily boied up and is hurried by this impetuous torrent in large masses from place to place in with irristable forse, collecting and forming sandbars in the course of a few hours which as suddingly disapated to form others and give place perhaps to the deepest channel of the river. where it enters the Missouri it's superior force changes and directs the courant of that river against it's northern bank where it is compressed within a channel less than one third of the width it had just before occupyed. it dose not furnish the missouri with it's colouring matter as has been asserted by some, but it throws into it immence quantities of sand and gives a celerity to it's courant of which it abates but little untill it's junction with the Mississippy. the water of this river is turbid at all seasons of the year but is by no means as much so as that of the Missourie. The sediment it deposits, consists of very fine particles of white sand while that of the Missoury is composed principally of a dark rich loam-in much greater quantity
21st July from the experiments and observations we were enabled to make with rispect to the comparative velocities of the courants of the rivers Mississippi Missouri and Plat it results that a vessel will float in the Mississippi below the entrance of the Missouri at the rate of four miles an hour. in the Missouri from it's junction with the Mississsippi to the entrance of the Osage river from 51/2 to 6 from thence to the mouth of the Kanzas from 61/2 to 7. from thence to the Platte 51/2 while the Plat is at least 8.- The Missouri above the junction of the river plat is equal to about 31/2 miles an hour as far as the mouth of the Chyenne where its courant still abates and becomes equal to about three miles an hour from information it dose not increase it's volocity for
[Clark, July 21, 1804]
July 21st Satturday, - Set out verry early and a Gentle Breeze from the S. E proceeded on very well, passed a (1) Willow Island L. S. opsd. a bad Sand bar passed Some high land covered with Timber, in this Hill is Semented rock & Limestone the water runs out and forms Several little Islands in (2) high water on the S. S. a large Sand bar on the S. S. above and opposit the wooded High Land, at about 7 oClock the wind Seased and it Commenced raining passed many Sand bars opposit or in the Mouth of the Great River Plate this river which is much more rapid than the Missourie has thrown out imence quantities of Sand forming large Sand Banks at its mouth and forced the Missourie Close under the S. S. the Sands of this river Comes roleing down with the Current which is Crowded with Sand bars and not 5 feet water at any place across its mouth, the Rapidity of the Current of this river which is greater than that of the Missourie, its width at the Mouth across the bars is about 3/4 of a mile, higher up I am told by one of the bowmen that he was 2 winters on this river above and that it does not rise 7 feet, but Spreds over 3 miles at Some places, Capt Lewis & my Self went up Some Distance & Crossed found it Shallow. This river does not rise over 6 or 7 feet
Proceeded on passed the mouth of Papillion or Butter fly Creek 3 miles on the L. S. a large Sand bar opposit on that Side Camped above this baron L. S. a great number of wolves about us all night R. Fields killed a Deer hard wind N. W. cold
[Clark, July 21, 1804]
July 21st, Satturday 1804 - Set out early under a gentle breeze from the S. E. proceeded on verry well, passed (1) a willow Island on the L. S. opposit a bad Sand bar, Some high lands covered with timber L. S in this hill is limestone & Seminted rock of Shels &c. (2) in high water the opposit Side is cut thro by Several Small Channels, forming Small Islands, a large Sand bar opposit the Hill at 7 oClock the wind luled and it Commnc'd raining, arrived at the lower Mouth of the Great River Platt at 10 oClock (about 3 ms. above the Hill of wood land, the Same range of High land Continus within 3/4 of a mile of the mouth below) This Great river being much more rapid than the Missourie forces its current against the opposit Shore, The Current of This river Comes with great Velocity roleing its Sands into the Missouri, filling up its Bend & Compelling it to incroach on the S Shore- we found great dificuelty in passing around the Sand at the mouth of this River Capt Lewis and My Self with 6 men in a perogue went up this Great river Plate about 1 miles, found the Current verry rapid roleing over Sands, passing through different Channels none of them more than five or Six feet deep, about 600 yards Wide at the mouth- I am told by one of our Party who wintered two winters on This river that "it is much wider above, and does not rise more than five or Six feet" Spreds verry and from its rapidity & roleing Sands Cannot be navagated with Boats or Perogues- The Indians pass this river in Skin Boats which is flat and will not turn over. The Otteaus a Small nation reside on the South Side 10 Leagues up, the Panies on the Same Side 5 Leagus higher up- about 10 Leagus up this river on the S. Side a Small river Comes into the Platt Called Salt River, "The waters So brackish that it Can't be Drank at Some Seasons" above this river & on the North Side a Small river falls into the Platt Called Elk River This river runs Parralal withe the Missouri- at 3 miles passed a Small river on the L. S. Called Papillion or Butterfly C. 18 yds. wide a large Sand bar off the mouth, we proceeded on to get to a good place to Camp and Delay a fiew days, passed around this Sand bar and Came to for the night on the L. S. a verry hard wind from the N. W. I went on Shore S. S. and proceeded up one mile thro high Bottom land open a Great number of wolves about us this evening
[Clark, July 22, 1804]
July 22nd Sunday - Set out verry early with a view of getting Some timbered land & a good Situation to take equil altitudes in time proceeded on nearly a North 15° W 7 ms. to a pt. S. S. opposit Some high Lands on L. S. above the upper point of a long willow Island in the middle of the river 6 Deer killed to Day we deturmined to Stay here 4 or 5 days to take & make obsvts. & refresh our men also to Send Despatches back to govement- Wind hard N. W. Cold
[Clark, July 22, 1804]
22nd of July 1804 - Completlly arranged our Camp, posted two Sentinals So as to Completely guard the Camp, formd bowers for the min $cc. &. Course from R Plate N 15° W. 10 Ms.
[Clark, July 22, 1804]
July 22nd, Sunday 1804 - Set out verry early with a view of Getting to Some Situation above in time to take equal altitudes and take Observations, as well as one Calculated to make our party Comfortabl in a Situation where they Could recive the benifit of a Shade- passed a large Sand bar opposit a Small river on the L. S. at 3 miles above Plate Called Papillion or Butterfly Creek a Sand bar & an Willow Island opposit a Creek 9 ms. above the Plate on the S. S. Called Mosquitos Creek Prarie on both Sides of the river. Came too and formed a Camp on the S. S. above a Small Willow Island, and opposit the first Hill which aproach the river on the L. S. and covered with timbers of Oake Walnut Elm &c. &. This being a good Situation and much nearer the Otteaus town than the Mouth of the Platt, we concluded to delay at this place a fiew days and Send for Some of the Chiefs of that nation to let them Know of the Change of Government, The wishes of our Government to Cultivate friendship with them, the Objects of our journy and to present them with a flag and Some Small presents
Some of our Provisions in the French Perogue being wet it became necessary to Dry them a fiew days- Wind hard from N W. five Deer Killed to day- The river rise a little
[Lewis, July 22, 1804]
July 22nd 1804. - A summary discription of the apparatus employed in the following observations; containing also some remarks on the manner in which they have been employed, and the method observed in recording the observations made with them.
1st- a brass Sextant of 10 Inches radius, graduated to 15 which by the assistance of the nonius was devisible to 15"; and half of this sum by means of the micrometer could readily be distinguished, therefore-7.5" of an angle was perceptible with this instrument; she was also furnished with three eye-pieces, consisting of a hollow tube and two telescopes one of which last reversed the images of observed objects. finding on experiment that the reversing telescope when employed as the eye-piece gave me a more full and perfect image than either of the others, I have most generally imployed it in all the observations made with this instrument; when thus prepared I found from a series of observations that the quantity of her index error was 8' 45"-; this sum is therefore considered as the standing error of the instrument unless otherwise expressly mentioned. the altitudes of all objects, observed as well with this instrument as with the Octant were by means of a reflecting surface; and those stated to have been taken with the sextant are the degrees, minutes, &c shewn by the graduated limb of the instrument at the time of observation and are of course the double altitudes of the objects observed.
2ed- A common Octant of 14 Inches radius, graduated to 20', which by means of the nonius was devisbile to 1', half of this sum, or 30" was perceptible by means of a micrometer. this instrument was prepared for both the fore and back observation; her error in the fore observation is 2°+, & and in the back observtion 2° r 1' 40.3" + at the time of our departure from the River Dubois untill the present moment, the sun's altitude at noon has been too great to be reached with my sextant, for this purpose I have therefore employed the Octant by the back observation. the degrees ' & ", recorded for the sun's altitude by the back observation express only the angle given by the graduated limb of the instrument at the time of observation, and are the complyment of the double Altitude of the sun's observed limb; if therefore the angle recorded be taken from 180° the remainder will be the double altitude of the observed object, or that which would be given by the fore observation with a reflecting surface.
3rd- An Artificial Horizon on the construction recommended and practiced by Mr. Andrw. Ellicott of Lancaster, Pensyla., in which water is used as the reflecting surface; believing this artificial Horizon liable to less error than any other in my possession, I have uniformly used it when the object observed was sufficiently bright to reflect a distinct immage; but as much light is lost by reflection from water I found it inconvenient in most cases to take the altitude of the moon with this horizon, and that of a star impracticable with any degree of accuracy.
4th- An Artificial Horizon constructed in the manner recommended by Mr. Patterson of Philadelphia; glass is here used as the reflecting surface. this horizon consists of a glass plane with a single reflecting surface, cemented to the flat side of the larger segment of a wooden ball; adjusted by means of a sperit-level and a triangular stand with a triangular mortice cut through it's center sufficiently large to admit of the wooden ball partially; the stand rests on three screws inserted near it's angles, which serve as feet for it to rest on while they assist also in the adjustment. this horizon I have employed in taking the altitude of the sun when his image he has been reather too dull for a perfect reflection from water; I have used it generally in taking the altitude of the moon, and in some cases of the stars also; it gives the moon's image very perfectly, and when carefully adjusted I consider it as liable to but little error.
5th- An Artificial Horizon formed of the index specula of a Sextant cemented to a flat board; adjusted by means of a sperit level and the triangular stand before discribed. as this glass reflects from both surfaces it gives the images of all objects much more bright than either of the other horizons; I have therefore most generally employed it in observing the altitudes of stars
6th- A Chronometer; her ballance-wheel and escapement were on the most improved construction. she rested on her back, in a small case prepared for her, suspended by an universal joint. she was carefully wound up every day at twelve oclock. Her rate of going as asscertained by a series of observations made by myself for that purpose was found to be 15 Seconds and a 5 tenths of a second too slow in twenty four howers on Mean Solar time. This is nearly the same result as that found by Mr. Andrew Ellicott who was so obliging as to examine her rate of going for the space of fourteen days, in the summer 1803. her rate of going as ascertained by that gentleman was 15.6 s too slow M. T. in 24 h. and that she went from 3 to 4 s. slower the last 12 h, than she did the first 12 h. after being wound up.
at 12 OCk. on the 14th day of may 1804 (being the day on which the detachment left the mouth of the River Dubois) the Chronometer was too fast M. T. 6 m. 32 s. & 2/10.- This time-piece was regulated on meantime, and the time entered in the following observations is that shewn by her at the place of observation. the day is recconed on Civil time, (i e) commencing at midnight.
7th- A Circumferentor, circle 6 Inches diameter, on the common construction; by means of this instrument adjusted with the sperit level, I have taken the magnetic azimuth of the sun and pole Star. It has also been employed in taking the traverse of the river:- from the courses thus obtained, together with the distances estimated from point to point, the chart of the Missouri has been formed which now accompanys these observations. the several points of observation are marked with a cross of red ink, and numbered in such manner as to correspond with the celestial observations made at those points respectively.
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The Journals of Lewis and Clark, 1804-1806