[Clark, August 20, 1804]
20th August Monday - after gieving faufon Some goods the Indians a Canister of whiskey, we Set out under a jentle Breeze from the S. E Shields went with the horses- I am Dull & heavy been up the greater Part of last night with Serjt. Floyd, who is as bad as he can be to live the motion of his bowels having changed &c. &c. is the Cause of his violent attack &c. &c.
we Came to make a warm bath for Sergt. Floyd hopeing it would brace him a little, before we could get him in to this bath he expired, with a great deel of composure, haveing Said to me before his death that he was going away and wished me to write a letter- we Buried him to the top of a high round hill over looking the river & Countrey for a great distance Situated just below a Small river without a name to which we name & call Floyds river, the Bluffs Sergts. Floyds Bluff-we buried him with all the honors of War, and fixed a Ceeder post at his head with his name title & Day of the month and year Capt Lewis read the funeral Service over him after paying everry respect to the Body of this desceased man (who had at All times given us proofs of his impatiality Sincurity to ourselves and good will to Serve his Countrey) we returned to the Boat & proceeded to the Mouth of the little river 30 yd. wide & Camped a butifull evening
[Clark, August 20, 1804]
20th August Monday 1804 - Sergeant Floyd much weaker and no better. Made Mr. Fauforn the interpter a fiew presents, and the Indians a Canister of whisky we Set out under a gentle breeze from the S. E. and proceeded on verry well-Serjeant Floyd as bad as he can be no pulse & nothing will Stay a moment on his Stomach or bowels
Passed two Islands on the S. S. and at first Bluff on the S S. Serj. Floyd Died with a great deel of Composure, before his death he Said to me, "I am going away. I want you to write me a letter"- We buried him on the top of the bluff 1/2 Miles below a Small river to which we Gave his name, he was buried with the Honors of War much lamented; a Seeder post with the (1) Name Sergt. C. Floyd died here 20th of August 1804 was fixed at the head of his grave- This Man at all times gave us proofs of his firmness and Deturmined resolution to doe Service to his Countrey and honor to himself after paying all the honor to our Decesed brother we Camped in the mouth of floyds river about 30 yards wide, a butifull evening.-
[Clark, August 21, 1804]
21st August Tuesday - we Set out verry early this morning under a Gentle Breeze from the S. E Course S. 82° E 3 mes to the upper pt. of a Bluff on the S. S. passed Willow Creek and Some rock below the mouth of the Seouex river on the Starboard Side those Clifts are about 170 feet high, this river heads with the St. peters and is navagable 75 Leagues (by the act. of Mr. Durien) to a fall of near 200 for, 2 large & Som Small Pitchs below the falls on the right a Creek corns in on which the red pipe Stone is percured, & in the praries about, a place of Peace with all nations.
[Clark, August 21, 1804]
21st August Tuesday 1804 - We Set out verry early this morning and proceeded on under a gentle Breeze from the S. E. passed willow creek Small on the S. S. below a Bluff of about 170 feet high and one 1/2 mes. above Floyds river at 11/2 miles higher & above the Bluff passed the Soues River S. S. this River is about the Size of Grand river and as Mr. Durrien our Scones intptr. says "navagable to the falls 70 or 80 Leagues and above these falls" Still further, those falls are 200 feet or there abouts & has two princapal pitches, and heads with the St. peters passing the head of the Demoien, on the right below the falls a Creek Coms in which passes thro Clifts of red rock which the Indians make pipes of, and when the different nations Meet at those queries all is piece, passed a place in a Prarie on the L. S. where the Mahars had a Village formerly. the Countrey above the Platt R has a great Similarity. Campd. on the L. Side. Clouds appear to rise in the west & threten wind. I found a verry excellent froot resembling the read Current, the Scrub on which it grows resembles Privey & about the Common hight of a wild plumb-
The two men Sent with the horses has not joined us as yet
[Clark, August 22, 1804]
22nd of August Wendesday 1804 - Set out early wind from the South. G Shannon joined the Boat last night. Course this morning is S 47° W. 11/4 on the S. point West 11/4 me. to the Commencement of a Bluff on the L. S. the High land near the river for Some distance below. This Bluff contain Pyrites alum, Copperass & a Kind Markesites also a clear Soft Substance which will mold and become pliant like wax) Capt lewis was near being Poisened by the Smell in pounding this Substance I belv to be arsenic or Cabalt. I observe great Quantity of Cops. ans and almin pure & Straters of white & brown earth of 6 Inch thick. a Creek Corns in above the Bluffs on which there is great quantities of those minerals, This Creek I call Roloje a at those Allom banks Shields joined in with two Deer
Camped on the S. S. a Great Deel of Elk Sign fresh Capt. Lewis took a Dost of Salts this evening to carry off the effects of (arsenec) or cobalt which he was trying to find out the real quallity (2) passed a Clift of Rock much impregnated with alum, Containing also a great quantity of Cabalt
ordered a Vote of the men for a Sergeant of the three highest numbers a choice to be made Gass Bratton & Gibson- Gass is worth remark, that my Ink after Standing in the pot 3 or four days Soaks up & becons thick
[Clark, August 22, 1804]
22nd August Friday 1804 - Set out early wind from the South at three miles we landed at a Bluff where the two men Sent with the horses were waiting with two Deer, by examonation of this (1) Bluff Contained alum, Copperas, Cobalt, Pyrites; a alum rock Soft & Sand Stone. Capt. Lewis in proveing the quality of those minerals was near poisoning himself by the fumes & tast of the Cabalt which had the appearance of Soft Isonglass- Copperas & alum is verry pure, Above this Bluff a Small Creek Coms in from the L. S. passing under the Clifts for Several miles, this Creek I Call Roloje a name I learned last night in my Sleep. (2) Eight) Seven miles above is a Clift of Allom Stone of a Dark Brown Colr. Containing also in crusted in the Crevices & Shelves of the rock great qts. of Cabalt, Semented Shels & a red earth. from this the (3) river bends to the East and is within 3 or 4 miles of the River Soues at the place where that river Coms from the high land into the Low Prarie & passes under the foot of those Hills to its mouth.
Capt Lewis took a Dost of Salts to work off the effects of the Arsenic, we Camped on the S. S. Sailed the greater part of this day with a hard wind from the S. E. great deel of Elk Sign, and great appearance of wind from the N. W.
ordered a vote for a Serjeant to chuse one of three which may be the highest number the highest numbers are P. Gass had 19 Votes, Bratten & Gibson
[Clark, August 23, 1804]
23rd August Thursday 1804 - Set out this morning verry early, the two men R. Fields & Shannon did not Come up last night, I went out and Killed a fine Buck, J. Fields Killed a Buffaloes, 2 Elk Swam by the boat whilst I was out and was not Killed, many guns fired at it R. Fields Came up with the horses & brought two Deer, Collins Killed a Small doe, Several Prarie wolves Seen Course West 4 Mls. to the mouth of a Small run between two Bluffs of yellow Clay North 31/4 miles to the upper Pt. of Some timber in the bend to S. S. near where R. fields Killed the Buffalow passed the pt. of High Land on S. S at 1/4 of a mile, Capt. Lewis went out with 8 men & brought the buffalow to the river at this bend, C. Lewis Killed a Goose, wind blew hard of the flying Sands which rasies like a Cloud of Smoke from the Bars when the wind Blows, the Sand being fine and containing a breat perpotion of earth and when it lights it Sticks to every thing it touches at this time the grass is white S 48° 3 miles to a point of willows on the S. S. haveing passed the Sand Island L. S Camped on the L S above the Island Saw an elk Standing on a Sand bar. Shields Shot it thro the neck 101/4
[Clark, August 23, 1804]
23rd August Thursday 1804 - Set out this morning verry early the two men with the horses did not Come up last night I walked on Shore & Killed a fat Buck- J. Fields Sent out to hunt Came to the Boat and informed that he had Killed a Buffalow in the plain a head Cap Lewis took 12 men and had the buffalow brought to the boat in the next bend to the S S. 2 Elk Swam the river, and was fired at from the boat R. Fields came up with the Horses and brought two Deer one Deer Killed from the Boat. Several Prarie Wolves Seen to day Saw Elk Standing on the Sand bar
The Wind blew hard West and raised the Sands off the bar in Such Clouds that we Could Scercely See this Sand being fine and verry light Stuck to every thing it touched, and in the Plain for a half a mile the distance I was out every Spire of Grass was covered with the Sand or Dust We Camped on the L. S. above a Sand Island one Beaver Cought
[Clark, August 24, 1804]
24th August Friday 1804. - Some rain last night & this morning, we Set out at the usial time and proceeded on the Same Course of last night Continued S. 48° W. 21/4 mes. to the Commencement of a Blue Clay Bliff on LS. about 180 or 190 feet high West under rugged Bluffs 13/4 ms. passing Several Small Dreens, falling into the river those Bluffs has been lately on fire and is yet verry Hott, Great appearance of Coal, & imence quantities of Cabalt in Side of that part oft the Bluff which Sliped in, on the Sides of the hill great quanities of a kind of Current or froot resembling the Current in appearance much richer and finer flavd. grows on a Scrub resembling a Damsen and is now fine and makes a Delightful) Tart above this Bluff I took my Servent and a french boy I have and walked on Shore I killed a Deer which york Packed on his back In the evening I Killed two Buck Elk and wounded two others which I could not pursue by the Blood as my ball was So Small to bleed them well, my boys each Shot an elk- it was late and I Crossed a Point Struck the river above and halted the boat and 12 men went out brought in the meat all the after part of the day it rained we are all wet. Capt Lewis and my Self Concluded to visit a High Hill Situated in an emence Plain three Leagues N. 20° W. from the mouth of White Stone river, this hill appear to be of a Conic form and by all the different Nations in this quater is Supposed to be a place of Deavels ors that they are in human form with remarkable large heads and about 18 inches high; that they are very watchfull and ar armed with Sharp arrows with which they can kill at a great distance; they are said to kill all persons who are so hardy as to attemp to approach the hill; they state that tradition informs them that many indians have suffered by these little people and among others that three Maha men fell a sacrefice to their murceyless fury not meany years since- so much do the Mahas Souix Ottoes and other neibhbouring nations believe this fable that no consideration is sufficient to induce them to approach this hill.
[Clark, August 24, 1804]
24th August Friday 1804 - Some rain last night, a Continuation this morning; we Set out at the usial time and proceeded on the Course of last night to the (1) Commencement of a blue Clay Bluff of 180 or 190 feet high on the L. S. Those Bluffs appear to have been laterly on fire, and at this time is too hot for a man to bear his hand in the earth at any debth, gret appearance of Coal. An emence quantity of Cabalt or a Cristolised Substance which answers its discription is on the face of the Bluff-Great quantities of a kind of berry resembling a Current except double the Sise and Grows on a bush like a Privey, and the Size of a Damsen deliciously flavoured & makes delitefull Tarts, this froot is now ripe, I took my Servent and a french boy and Walked on Shore Killed Two Buck Elks and a faun, and intersepted the Boat and had all the meat butchered and in by Sun Set at which time it began to rain and rained hard, Cap Lewis & my Self walk out & got Verry wet, a Cloudey rainey night,- In my absence the Boat Passed a Small (2) River Called by the Indians White Stone River. this river is about 30 yards wide and runs thro a Plain & Prarie in its whole Course In a northerley direction from the mouth of this Creek in an imence Plain a high Hill is Situated, and appears of a Conic form and by the different nations of Indians in this quarter is Suppose to be the residence of Deavels. that they are in human form with remarkable large heads and about 18 Inches high, that they are Very watchfull, and are arm'd with Sharp arrows with which they Can Kill at a great distance; they are Said to Kill all persons who are So hardy as to attempt to approach the hill; they State that tradition informs them that many Indians have Suffered by those little people and among others three Mahar men fell a Sacrefise to their murceyless fury not many years Since- So much do the Maha, Souis, Ottoes and other neighbouring nations believe this fable that no Consideration is Suffecient to induce them to apporach the hill
[Lewis, August 24, 1804]
Friday, August 24th - This day the Chronometer stoped again just after being wound up; I know not the cause, but fear it procedes from some defect which it is not in my power to remedy.-
[Clark, August 24, 1804]
(1) About the center of this Sand Island the river of white Stone (as Called by Mr. Evins Kenvill R.) falls in on the Stard. Side it appear to be about 25 or 30 yards Wide; at the mouth of this river 10 Indians had latterly cross Supposed be be Soues, the part of a band which are at war with the Mahars, This Soues nation are divided into bands Som 100 to 500 men in a band at peace with eath other, ther Interest & prejudices different, for instance one band the most envetterate enimy of the mahars, all the other Bands in the greatest harmony with that nation and even go with thim to War, those Soues, follow the Buffalow, & Kill them on foot, they pack their Dogs, which carry ther Bedn.
[Clark, August 25, 1804]
Augt. 25th Satturday 1804 - This morning Capt Lewis & my Self G D. Sjt. Ouderway Shields J. Fields colter Bratten Cane Labeeche corp Wovington Frasure & York Set out to Visit this mountain of evel Spirits, we Set out from the mouth of the White Stone Creek, at 8 oClock, at 4 miles Cross the Creek in an open plain, at 7 ms. the dog gave out & we Sent him back to the Creek at 12 oClock we rose the hill Some time before we got to the hill we obsevd. great numbers of Birds hovering about the top of this Mound when I got on the top those Birds flw off. I discovered that they wer Cetechig a kind of flying ant which were in great numbers abought the top of this hill, those insects lit on our hats & necks, Several of them bit me verry Shart on the neck, near the top of this nole I observed three holes which I Supposed to be Prarie Wolves or Braroes, which are numerous in those Plains. this hill is about 70 foot high in an emince Prarie or leavel plain from the top I could not observe any woods except in the Missourie Points and a few Scattering trees on the three Rivers in view. i e the Soues River below, the River Jacque above & the one we have crossed from the top of this Mound we observed Several large gangus of Buffalow & Elk feeding upwards of 800 in number Capt Lewis being much fatigued and verry thursty obliged us to go to the neares water which we Could See, which was the W Stone Creek at right angles from the Course we came out, and we got water in three miles in the Creek above whre the beaver had darned it up after a Delay of about one hour & a half we Set out for our boat, Cross the Creek three times wast deep, passing down an ellgent bottom of about a mile in width bordered by a ridge of about 50 feet from the top of which it was leavel to the river, we proceeded on by a Circular Derection to the place we Crossed this Creek going out where we delayed for the men to rest themselves about 40 minits in a small grove here we got Great quantities of the best largest grapes I ever tasted, Some Blue Currents still on the bushes, and two kind of Plumbs, one the Common wild Plumb the other a large Yellow Plumb growing on a Small bush, this blumb is about double the Size of the Common and Deliscously flavoured- Those plains are leavel without much water and no timber all the timber on the Stone River would not thickly timber 100 acres of land- we returned to the boat at Sunset, my Servent nearly exosted with heat thurst and fatigue, he being fat and un accustomed to walk as fast as I went was the Cause- we Set fire to the Praries in two Places to let the Sons know we were on the river and as a Signal for them to Come to the river above, our Party in the Boat & one Perogue undr. the Comd of Sergt. Pryor answered us by firing a prarie near them. we proceeded on to the place we Camped last night, and as it began to rain and verry dark, we Concluded to Stay all night, our boys prepared us a Supper of jurked meet and two Prarie Larks (which are about the Size of a Pigeon and Peculier to this country) and on a Buffalow roabe we Slept verry well in the morning we proceeded on and joined the boat at 6 miles, they had camped & were Jurking an Elk & 5 Deer which R. Fields & Shannon had brough in. from the Mound to the Hill S. S. mo. of R. Soues S 70° E. to the opsd. Hills S. 45° E. and to the woods near River au Jacque is West
[Clark, August 25, 1804]
Augt. 25th Satturday - wind S E The Boat under Serjt Pryor after drying some goods which got wet in the french Perogue & jurking the meet killed yesterday Set out at 12 oClock and proceeded on Six miles and Camped on the L. S. passed a Bluff of blue earth at 3 miles and a large Sand Island in a bend to the S. S. at 5 miles, R Fields brought in 5 Deer, G Shannon an Elk this eveng. rain at 3 oClock Murcky. 86 abo 0,
[Clark, August 25, 1804]
25th August Satturday 1804 - a Cloudy morning Capt Lewis & my Self Concluded to go and See the Mound which was viewed with Such turrow by all the different Nation in this quarter, we Selected Shields J. Fields, W Bratten, Sergt. Ordway, J Colter, Can, and Corp Worbington & Frasure, also G. Drewyer and droped down to the mouth of White Stone River where we left the Perogue with two men and at 200 yards we assended a riseing ground of about Sixty feet, from the top of this High land the Countrey is leavel & open as far as Can be Seen, except Some few rises at a Great Distance, and the Mound which the Indians Call Mountain of little people or Spirits this mound appears of a Conic form & is N. 20° W. from the mouth of the Creek, we left the river at 8 oClock, at 4 miles we Crossed the Creek 23 yards wide in an extensive Valley and continued on at two miles further our Dog was So Heeted & fatigued we was obliged Send him back to the Creek, at 12 oClock we arrived at the hill Capt Lewis much fatigued from heat the day it being verry hot & he being in a debilitated State from the Precautions he was obliged to take to provent the affects of the Cobalt, & Mini. Substance which had like to have poisoned him two days ago, his want of water, and Several of the men complaining of Great thirst, deturmined us to make for the first water which was the Creek in a bend N. E. from the mound about 3 miles- aftr a Delay of about 1 hour & a half to recrut our party we Set out on our return down the Creek thro the bottom of about 1 mile in width, Crossed the Creek 3 times to the place we first Struck it, where we geathered Some delisious froot Such as Grapes Plumbs, & Blue Currents after a Delay of an hour we Set out on our back trail & arrived at the Perogue at Sun Set we proceedd on to the place we Campd. last night and Stayed all night.
This Mound is Situated on an elivated plain in a leavel and extensive prarie, bearing N. 20° W. from the mouth of White Stone Creek Nine Miles, the base of the Mound is a regular parallelagram the long Side of which is about 300 yards in length the Shorter 60 or 70 yards- from the longer Side of the Base it rises from the North & South with a Steep assent to the hight of 65 or 70 feet, leaveing a leavel Plain on the top of 12 feet in width & 90 in length. the North & South part of this mound is joins by two regular rises, each in Oval forms of half its hight forming three regular rises from the Plain the assent of each elivated part is as Suden as the principal mound at the narrower Sides of its Bass
The reagular form of this hill would in Some measure justify a belief that it owed its Orrigin to the hand of man; but as the earth and loos pebbles and other Substances of which it was Composed, bare an exact resemblance to the Steep Ground which border on the Creek in its neighbourhood we Concluded it was most probably the production of nature-.
The only remarkable Charactoristic of this hill admiting it to be a naturial production is that it is insulated or Seperated a considerable distance from any other, which is verry unusial in the naturul order or disposition of the hills.
The Surrounding Plains is open void of Timber and leavel to a great extent; hence the wind from whatever quarter it may blow, drives with unusial force over the naked Plains and against this hill; the insects of various kinds are thus involuntaryly driven to the mound by the force of the wind, or fly to its Leward Side for Shelter; the Small Birds whoes food they are, Consequently resort in great numbers to this place in Surch of them; Perticularly the Small brown Martin of which we saw a vast number hovering on the Leward Side of the hill, when we approached it in the act of Catching those insects; they were So gentle that they did not quit the place untill we had arrivd. within a fiew feet of them-
One evidence which the Inds Give for believeing this place to be the residence of Some unusial Spirits is that they frequently discover a large assemblage of Birds about this mound- is in my opinion a Suffient proof to produce in the Savage mind a Confident belief of all the properties which they ascribe it.
from the top of this Mound we beheld a most butifull landscape; Numerous herds of buffalow were Seen feeding in various directions, the Plain to North N. W & N E extends without interuption as far as Can be Seen From the Mound to the mouth of Stone River is S. 20° E 9 miles.
to the woods near the mouth of River Jacque is West
to the High land near the mouth of Souis River is S. 70 E.
to the high land opposit Side or near the Maha Town is S. 45 E.
Some high lands to be Seen from the mound at a Great distance to the N. E Some Nearer to the N W. no woods except on the Missouris Points
if all the timber which is on the Stone Creek was on 100 acres it would not be thickly timbered, the Soil of those Plains are delightfull Great numbers of Birds are Seen in those Plains, Such as black bird, Ren or Prarie burd a kind of larke about the Sise of a Partridge with a Short tail &c. &.
25th Augt the Boat under the Comd. of Sergt. Pryor proceeded on in our absence (after jurking the Elk I Killed yesterday) Six Miles and Camped on the Larboard Side R Fields brought in five Deer. George Shannon Killed an Elk Buck Some rain this evening.
we Set the Praries on fire as a Signal for the Soues to Come to the river.
[Lewis, August 25, 1804]
August the 25th - on our return from the mound of sperits saw the first bats that we had observed since we began to ascend the Missouri
also saw on our return on the Creek that passes this mound about 2 M. distant S. a bird of heron kind as large as the Cormorant short tale long leggs of a colour on the back and wings deep copper brown with a shade of red. we could not kill it therefore I can not describe it more particularly.
[Clark, August 26, 1804]
26th August Sunday 1804 - arrived at the boat at 9 oClock A.M. Set out at 10 oClock after Jurking the meet & Cutting the Elk Skins for a Toe Roap and proceeded, leaveing G. Drewyer & Shannon to hunt the horses, the river verry full of Sand bars and Wide Course S. 66° W. 2 mes. to a Sand bar Makeing out from the S. S. N. 82° W. 7 mes. to a pt. of willows S S passd. a Island & large Sand bars on both sides river wide and a Clift of White earth on the L. S of 2 ms. in length to a point of Willows on the S. S opposit Arch Creek above the mouth of this Creek a Chief of the Maha nataton displeased with the Conduct of Black bird the main Chief came to this place and built a Town which was called by his name Petite Arch (or Little Bow) this Town was at the foot of a Hill in a handsom Plain fronting the river and Contained about 100 huts & 200 men, the remains of this tribe Since the Death of Petite arch has joined the remaining part of the nation This Creek is Small- we apt. Pat Gass Sergeant Vice Floyd Dicesed, Geathered great quantites of Grapes & three Kinds of Plumbs, one yellow round, & one ovel, & the Common wild Plumb. Misquetors bad to night- I have apt. you
[Clark, August 26, 1804]
26th August Sunday 1804 - (Joined the Boat at 9 oClock A M) after Jurking the meat Killed yesterday and prepareing the Elk Skins for a Toe Roape we Set out Leaveing Drewyer & Shannon to hunt the horses which was lost with directions to follow us Keeping on the high lands.
proceeded on passed a Clift of White & Blue or Dark earths of 2 miles in extent on the L. S. and Camped on a Sand bar opposed the old village Called Pitite Arc a Small Creek falls into the river 15 yds wide below the Village on the Same Side L. S this village was built by a Indian Chief of the Maha nation by the name of Pitite arc (or little Bow) displeasd. with the Great Chief of that nation (Black Bird) Seperated with 200 men and built a village at this place. after his death the two villages joined, apt. Pat Gass a Sergt. Vice Floyd Deceased
Great qts. of Grape, Plumbs of three Kinds 2 yellow and large of one of which is long and a 3rd kind round & red all well flavored. perticularly the yellow Sort.
[Lewis, August 26, 1804]
Orders August 26th 1804. - The commanding officers have thought it proper to appoint Patric Gass, a Sergeant in the corps of volunteers for North Western Discovery, he is therefore to be obeyed and respected accordingly.
Sergt. Gass is directed to take charge of the late Sergt. Floyd's mess, and immediately to enter on the discharge of such other duties, as by their previous orders been prescribed for the government of the Sergeants of this corps.
The Commanding officers have every reason to hope from the previous faithfull services of Sergt. Gass, that this expression of their approbation will be still further confirmed, by his vigilent attention in future to his duties as a Sergeant. the Commanding officers are still further confirmed in the high opinion they had previously formed of the capacity, deligence and integrety of Sergt. Gass, from the wish expresssed by a large majority of his comrades for his appointment as Sergeant.
Meriwether Lewis Capt. 1st U.S. Regt Infty. Wm Clark Cpt &.
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The Journals of Lewis and Clark, 1804-1806