Virginia


Castaways, Deserters, Refugees and Pirates

White's 1585 Roanoke Map

There is no accurate measure of the number of shipwrecks along the South Atlantic Coast and the Gulf of Mexico, but the number must be in the hundreds or even over a thousand. Also not known is how many shipwrecked sailors and passengers survived in North America during the 1500’s and 1600’s, or how many Sephardic Jews, Muslim Moors and European Protestants, escaping the Spanish Inquisition, landed on the shores of the present day Southeastern United States. Surviving archives, however, do furnish credible evidence of these peoples settling in the interior of the Southeast, while officially England was only colonizing the coastal regions.



The Rickohockens

A New Description of Carolina

The word, “Rickohocken,” appeared suddenly in the discussions of the Virginia House of Burgesses in 1644, and was frequently mentioned thereafter until 1684. No word similar to Rickohocken appeared on Virginia maps before 1644, while such southwestern Virginia tribes as the Tomahitan, Saponi and Occaneechi did. The Rickohockens were shown on British maps to control southwestern Virginia, southeastern Kentucky, northeastern Tennessee and northwestern North Carolina until the early 1700s.



The United Provinces of the Netherlands

Dutch East India Ship

Because the peoples of the Netherlands and the United States have always had the warmest of relations, contemporary American historians have typically overlooked the less than benign role that Dutch entrepreneurs played in the early development of the Virginia Colony. During the reign of Queen Elizabeth I, England and the rebelling peoples of the Low Countries were close allies. The Dutch rebels were dependent on English sea power to maintain access to the North Sea. That was to change.



Chronology of Early Virginia History 1607-1715

1607 – Jamestown colony founded. 1609 – Based on the voyage of Henry Hudson, the Netherlands claimed the region in what are now the Middle Atlantic States. Their claim extended from the Eastern Shore of Maryland to Massachusetts Bay.1 First Powhatan War (1610 to 1614) coincides with secret Dutch explorations. (See further: The Indian Wars



Potomac Tribe

Luther Newton of the Potomac tribe

A small group of families, whose names are mostly Newton and Green (figs. 40, 41), represent what may be the Indians who are recorded to Potomac creek, an affluent of about eight miles north of Fredericksburg in Stafford County, Virginia. We have not, however, clear proof that these descendants are actually of Potomac identity, although



Rappahannock Tribe

George L. Nelson, chief of the Rappahannock

A brief discussion of the Rappahannock Tribe, a remnant of the Nantaughtacund tribe.



Nansemond Tribe

Augustus A. Bass, Nansamond

A brief history of the Nansemond Indians who resided at Portsmouth, Bowers Hill, and in general about Dismal Swamp, Virginia. Includes last names of living descendants.



Chickahominy Tribe History

Powhatan Bradby, Chickahominy boy of Windsor Shades, Va.

The Chickahominy tribe history offers a problem in its political and social aspects, which seem to have been somewhat different from those of the Pamunkey.



The Indian Wars of the Colonists of Virginia

Opekankanough

The colonists of Virginia from the early settlement of Jamestown faced numerous conflicts with the Native American tribes who called the land of Virginia their own.



Adamstown Indians or Upper Mattaponi Band

Part of the Mattaponi Indian town seen from the river

One of the most important of the hitherto little known and unrecognized bands resides below Aylett’s landing, south of Mattaponi River, about a mile inland. The district is called Adamstown from the large number of the Adams family (fig. 20, a). They are citizens and have independent holdings near a large swamp which harbors considerable



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