Native American


Sir William Johnson and the Six Nations

Sir William Johnson and the Six Nations

The Mohawk Valley in which Sir William Johnson spent his adult life (1738-17 74) was the fairest portion of the domain of the Six Nations of the Iroquois Confederacy. In this valley William Griffis had lived nine years, seeing on every side traces or monuments of the industry, humanity, and powerful personality of its most famous resident in colonial days. From the quaint stone church in Schenectady which Sir Johnson built, and in whose canopied pews he sat, daily before his eyes, to the autograph papers in possession of his neighbors; from sites close at hand and traditionally associated with the lord of Johnson Hall, to the historical relics which multiply at Johnstown, Canajoharie, and westward, — mementos of the baronet were never lacking. His two baronial halls still stand near the Mohawk. Local traditions, while in the main generous to Johnson’s memory, was sometimes unfair and even cruel. The hatreds engendered by the partisan features of the Revolution, and the just detestation of the savage atrocities of Tories and red allies led by Johnson’s son and son-in-law, had done injustice to the great man himself. Yet base and baseless tradition was in no whit more unjust than the sectional opinions and hostile gossip of the New England militia which historians have so freely transferred to their pages.



Catholic Sioux Herald Newspaper 1896-1912

Legend of the S'ina-sapa-wocekiye-taeyanpaha

By the treaty of Washington Apr. 19, 1858, the Yankton Sioux ceded all their lands in South Dakota, excepting a reservation on the north bank of Missouri river, where they have since remained in peace with the whites. Rev. Jerome Hunt and the St. Paul’s Catholic Indian Mission of the Yankton Tribe of the Sioux Indians, at Fort Trotten, published the S’ina sapa wocekiye taeyanpaha (short name of Eyanpaha) for at least the years of 1896-1912 in the Yankton Sioux native language and in English. This newspaper, who’s English translation of it’s name means the Catholic Sioux Herald was published for the Yankton Sioux residing on the reservation about Fort Trotten. Many of the issues from this newspaper have been retained and are presented below. Some of these are labelled as “supplements.” You’ll have to scrounge around a little to find articles in the English language, but they do exist.



Indian Wars of New England

Indian Wars of New England

To the student of Indian history of the early New England period the catalog of the librarian would allow one to infer that the ground had been already preempted by Mr. William Hubbard and some other well-known writers upon the tragedies of the early New England days, whose labors are more famous for being a



Disbursements to Cherokees under the Treaty of May 6, 1828

Treaty of May 6, 1828, page 9

Abstract of disbursements and expenditures made by George Vashon, Indian Agent for the Cherokees west of the Mississippi, under the stipulations of the Treaty with said tribe of 6th May, 1828, between the 16th September, 1830, and the 31st December, 1833. In total this list represents 390 Cherokee families and 1835 individuals who each received 25.75 as part of their payment under the 5th article of the treaty of 6th May, 1828.



The Native American History of Florida’s Lake Okeechobee Basin

The Village of Calos

The Lake Okeechobee region contained some of the most sophisticated indigenous cultures that ever existed north of Mexico. Its towns built large earthworks and ponds in the shape of the ceremonial scepters carried by leaders in the Southeastern Ceremonial Mound Culture, but they were built several centuries before the Southeastern Ceremonial Mound Culture appeared elsewhere. Its engineers constructed several hundred miles of canals and raised causeways to interconnect the towns. They even built locks to enable cargo canoes to bypass rapids. Yet despite all this cultural precociousness, so far there is no evidence that the people of South Florida ever practiced large scale agriculture. However, intensive cultivation of raised garden beds in a semi-tropical climate, also a practice of the Mayas, may have produced a far higher percentage of their diet than anthropologists currently presume.



Mayaimi People

Mayami Catamaran

The Mayaimi People lived around Lake Okeechobee from at least 300 BC to until around 1700 AD.1 Their ancestors probably lived in the region as early as 1000 BC, because some village sites show continual cultural development from that era forward. The Mayaimi were the progenitors of the Glades Culture. During the period from around



Tekesta People

Village of Tekesta

The Tekesta were an indigenous maritime people, whose primary villages were near the mouths of rivers along the Atlantic Coast of what are now Miami-Dade, Broward and southern Palm Beach Counties.1 At certain periods in the past, they also occupied the Florida Keys, but Calusa artifacts outnumber those of Tekesta in Florida Key archaeological sites,



The Miami Circle

Vector image of the Miami Circle

The Miami Circle was discovered in 1998 during excavation for the construction of a luxury condominium at Brickell Point in Downtown Miami near the Miami River and Biscayne Bay.1 The developer, Michael Baumann, tore down an existing apartment complex in 1998. Prior to initiating construction of the new tower, he was required to retain archaeologists



The Calusa People

Birdseye View of Calusa

During the 1500s and early 1600s, when Spanish explorers were first making contact with the indigenous inhabitants of the Florida, they made contact with a powerful nation on the southwest coast between Charlotte Harbor and Cape Sable.1 The first contact was made in 1513 by Juan Ponce de Leon, when he landed at the mouth



Big Gopher and Boynton Mound Complexes

The immensely rich archaeological heritage of South Florida is little known outside the southern tip of the Florida Peninsula. Perhaps least known are the large town sites east of Lake Okeechobee. Several have been studied by professional archaeologists and the large town sites are all now protected by some form of public ownership. The 143



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