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General History of the Western Indian Tribes 1851-1870 – Indian Wars

Up to 1851, the immense uninhabited plains east of the Rocky Mountains were admitted to be Indian Territory, and numerous tribes roamed from Texas and Mexico to the Northern boundary of the United States. Then came the discovery of gold in California, drawing a tide of emigration across this wide reservation, and it became necessary, by treaty with the Indians, to secure a broad highway to the Pacific shore. By these treaties the Indians were restricted to certain limits, but with the privilege of ranging, for hunting purposes, over the belt thus re-reserved as a route of travel. The United States, also, agreed to pay the Indians 850,000 per annum, for fifteen years, in consideration of this right. The boundaries assigned, by these treaties to the Cheyennes and Arrapahoes, included the greater part of the present Colorado Territory, while the Sioux and Crows were to occupy the land of the Powder River route. After a few years gold was discovered in Colorado, upon the Indian reservation, settlers poured in, and, after the lands were mostly taken up by them, another treaty was made, February 18th, 1861, to secure them in peaceful possession. By this compact the Indians relinquished a large tract of land, and agreed to confine themselves to a small district upon both sides of the Arkansas River and along the northern boundary of New Mexico; while the United States was to furnish them protection; pay an annuity of $30,000 to each tribe for fifteen years, and provide stock and agricultural implements for those who desired to adopt civilized modes of life. Until April, 1864, no disturbances had...

Otter Creek Homesteaders

Otter Creek flows north into Montana out of the highlands in Wyoming and empties into the Tongue River at Ashland. Capt. Calvin Howes developed one of the earliest ranches on Otter Creek. He arrived in Montana in the early 1880’s and established the Circle Bar O Ranch on the lower Powder River. In 1884, Captain Howes drove 2,000 head of cattle from Texas to Otter Creek and maintained a successful cattle operation that survived the disastrous winter of 1886-87. The Creek’s naming is attributed to Howes. In total there were 50 families, 246 people on Otter Creek/Tongue River – Little Chief’s band has 20 families with 101 people. In a letter dated August 18, 1882 from George Yoakum to Pres. Arthur he states that Chief White Bull’s band has settled along the Tongue River and some have built houses. He also states that some of Little Chief’s band visited the Cheyenne in August, 1882 and now want to settle in the Tongue River valley. In a report dated October 3, 1882 from Capt. Ewers, 5th Infantry, Ft. Keogh, MT to the Asst. Adj. General, Dept. of Dakota, he states there are 10 houses, nearly completed, on or near the mouth of Otter Creek, and “so situated so each would have 160 acres”. NameMenWomenBoysGirlsPoniesCattleWagonHidesCabinComments Bob Tail Horse11418 miles south of Otter Creek. House not finished. Hollow Log1348 miles south of Otter Creek. Little Chief's Band. White Frog1215Little Chief's Band White Bull14725121Medicine Man Tangles Horn Elk2214415 Gray Whisker111141 Buffalo Wallow (female)227104 Bear Skins Red Plume2226251Little Chief's Band Tall White Man (1)213321Father / Son Tall White Man (2)1144Father / Son Whitw Hawk1221251...

Tongue River Homesteaders

In January 1881, all of the Northern Cheyenne that were sent to Fort Keogh were eventually allowed to move south and take homesteads near the Tongue River and on Rosebud and Muddy Creeks under the Indian Homestead Act of 1875. However, in 1900, the Northern Cheyenne families were removed or agreed to move under duress off of their private or individual holdings on which the Army under General Miles’ command had helped them settle and placed on the newly expanded reservation. In 1884 the Northern Cheyenne Indian Reservation was created on unsurveyed lands north of Tongue River. The Reservation boundaries excluded 46 Northern Cheyenne families who had been encouraged to homestead along the east bank of the Tongue River and along Otter Creek. At the same time, 46 white homesteads, both legal and illegal, had been established within the boundaries of the Reservation. In 1901, the white settlers on the newly expanded reservation lands in the Tongue River valley were ordered to leave. The Federal government paid the 46 white settlers $150,445 for their “improvements” (buildings etc.) on the west side of the Tongue River and compensated the 46 Cheyenne families with only $1,150 for their homesteads on the east side. Descendants of these families argue that because the government never paid fair value for these homesteads and that they were promised the chance to return, they still have claims to this land. In a letter from George Yoakum to the Commissioner of Indian Affairs, dated October 20 1882, he states that nearly all of Little Chief’s Band have arrived and are on the Tongue River, intending to take...

The Northern Cheyenne Reservation

This report has been prepared by the Northern Cheyenne Tribe under contract with the Bureau of Land Management (“BLM”). The BLM was in the process of amending the Powder River and Billings Area Resource Management Plans to address large-scale development of coal-bed methane (“CBM”) resources in southeastern Montana, including lands in the vicinity of the Northern Cheyenne Reservation. The purpose of the report is to characterize those aspects of the Reservation environment and resources, social, economic, cultural and physical, which have the potential to be affected by CBM and other energy development on adjacent lands. By identifying lands, resources and services which are likely to be vulnerable to impacts, the report is intended to assist BLM in meeting its trust obligations to prevent and/or mitigate the impacts of off-Reservation development on the Tribe and its Reservation.

Crown Tribal Births 1949-1950

The following information details those children born on the Crow Reservation, Montana, from June 1949 to October 1950. 1. Joseph Hedoesit, Jr.;  b. 6-14-49; degree of blood, 4/4; father, Joseph; mother, Laura Ida Tobacco; address, St. Xavier. 2. Dennis Arthur Wilson; b. 6-16-49; degree of blood, -; father, -; mother, Nora Wilson; address, Crow Agency. 3. Maralene L. Rideshorse; b. 6-21-4; degree of blood, 4/4; father, Samuel; mother, Fannie Otherblackbird, address, Pryor. 4. Vincient Littlelight; b. 6-23-49; degree of blood, 15/16; father, Richard; mother, Theresa Teed; address, St. Xavier. 5.  Caroline M. Farwell; b. 7-2-49; degree of blood, -; father, Mark; mother, Hazel Frisch; address, Crow. Discover your family's story. Enter a grandparent's name to get started. choose a state: Any AL AK AZ AR CA CO CT DE DC FL GA HI ID IL IN IA KS KY LA ME MD MA MI MN MS MO MT NE NV NH NJ NM NY NC ND OH OK OR PA RI SC SD TN TX UT VT VA WA WV WI WY INTL Start Now 6.  Cleora Beth Hill; b 7-6-49; degree of blood, -; father, John; mother, Eva Mae Hand; address, Crow Agency. 7.  Leanna Clarece Jefferson; b. 7-19-49; degree of blood, 5/8; father, Charles; mother, Bernice Pretty Weasel; address, Crow Agency. 8.  Georgia Old Ewarf; b. 7-20-49; degree of blood, 1/16; father, George; mother, Nancy Wallace; address, Lodge Grass. 9.  Barbara NotAfraid; b. 7-26-49; degree of blood,-; father, Star; mother, Deana Medicinehorse; address, Crow Agency. 10.  Charles J Yarlott; b. 7-28-49; degree of blood,-; father, Eugene; mother, Maude Morrison; address, Crow Agency. 11.  Melvin O. Rogers; b....

Blackfeet Reservation Historical Timeline

The largest and oldest histories of Montana Tribes are still very much oral histories and remain in the collective memories of individuals. Some of that history has been lost, but much remains vibrant within community stories and narratives that have yet to be documented Time Immemorial Creation – “Napi,” Old Man, created the Rocky Mountain Range, the Sweetgrass Hills and other geographic features in Montana and Canada. 1700 – The Blackfeet acquired the horse and rifle. 1700s – The Blackfeet traveled south along the Rocky Mountains. 1780 – A band of Blackfeet raided a Shoshone camp not knowing the Shoshone had small pox. The raid resulted in a smallpox epidemic among the Blackfeet band. One third of the band died. 1818 – The US and Canadian border was established. The 49th parallel would figure prominently in Blackfeet geography. Discover your family's story. Enter a grandparent's name to get started. choose a state: Any AL AK AZ AR CA CO CT DE DC FL GA HI ID IL IN IA KS KY LA ME MD MA MI MN MS MO MT NE NV NH NJ NM NY NC ND OH OK OR PA RI SC SD TN TX UT VT VA WA WV WI WY INTL Start Now 1837 – A second smallpox epidemic struck the Blackfeet. 1851 – The Fort Laramie Treaty of 1851. While an estimated 10,000 Indians attended this treaty negotiation, the Blackfeet did not. Though they were not present, Article 5 defined their territory, using the Musselshell, Missouri, Yellowstone Rivers and the Rocky Mountain Range as markers. 1855 – Lame Bull Treaty / Judith River Treaty.This...

Massacres of the Mountains

J.P. Dunn wrote Massacres of the Mountains in an attempt to separate historical fact from sensational fiction and to verify the problems that plagued the Indian tribes in this country of years. He doesn’t assign blame, but lets it fall where it belongs by meticulous research and the accurate, unbiased depiction of the true causes and subsequent results of some of the most famous Indian conflicts.

Montana Constitutional Convention Members 1889

The following persons were members of the constitutional convention: William A. Clark, Walter M. Bickford, J. F. Brazelton, Peter Breen, E. U Aiken, Simon R. Buford, William Mason Bullard, Walter A. Burleigh, Alex. F. Burns, Andrew J. Bums, Edward Burns, James Edward Cardwell, B. Piatt Carpenter, Milton Canby, William A. Chessman, Timothy E. Collins, Charles E. Conrad, Walter Cooper, Thomas F. Courtney, Arthur J. Craven, W. W. Dixon, D. M. Durfee, William Dyer. William T. Field, George O. Eaton, J. E. Gaylord, Paris Gibson, Warren C. Gillette, O. F. Goddard, Fielding L. Graves, R. E. Hammond, Charles S. Hartman, Henri J. Haskell, Luke D. Hatch, Lewis H. Hirshfield, Richard O. Hickman, S. S. Hobson, Joseph Hogan, Thomas Joyes, Allen R. Joy, J. E. Kanouse, A. R. Joy, W. J. Kennedy, H. Knippenberg, Hiram Kuowls, Conrad Kohrs, C. H. Loud, Llewellyn A. Luce, Martin Maginnis, J. E. Marion, Charles S. Marshall, William Mayger, P. W. McAdow, C. R. Middleton, Samuel Mitchell, William Muth, Alfred Myers, William Parberry, W. R. Ramsdell, G. J. Reek, John C. Robinson, L. Rotwitt, J. C Rickards, Francis E. Sargeant, Leopold F. Schmidt, George W. Stapleton, Joseph K. Toole, J. R. Toole, Charles S. Warren, William H. Watson, H. R. Whitehill, Charles M. Webster, George B, Winston, Aaron C. Whittier, David G. Brown. Helena Independent, Aug. 27, 1889. J. E. Rickards was born in Delaware in 1848. In 1873 he went to Colorado, where he resided until 1879, when he removed to San Francisco, remaining there until 1882, when he came to Montana, making his home at Butte. He was chosen a member of the Butte...

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