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Bowman, Wallace R., Sr. – Obituary

Wallace R. Bowman, Sr., 73 years old, 27198 Oak Drive, died Aug. 20, 1988, at the Veterans Administration Hospital, Fort Wayne, Ind. He was born July 19, 1915, in Elkhart County, Ind., a son of Frank A. and Carrie (Lampe) Bowman. On Feb. 4, 1943, he married Marion Schrader in Hot Springs, Ark. She died March 12, 1978. On April 6, 1983, he married Nancy Hunt in Sturgis. He was a Sturgis resident most of his life and was employed at the Kirsch Company. For 42 years, he had operated the B & W Tavern, retiring in 1983. He was a member of the Jack Johnston Chapter 88 disabled American Veterans, American Legion Post 303, Bonita Springs, Fla., Loyal Order of the Moose 574, American Association of Retired Persons and the Michigan United Conservation Clubs. He was a life member of the Fraternal Order of the Eagles Aerie 1314 and the Sturgis Elks Lodge 1381. Surviving are his wife; one son, Wallace R. Bowman Jr., Sturgis; five grandchildren; nine great grandchildren; and one sister, Geraldine Wolfe, Bronson. He was preceded in death by his parents. Relative and friends may call after 2 p.m. today at the Rosenberg-Schipper Funeral Home, Sturgis, where the family will receive friends from 2-4 p.m. and 7-9 p.m. today. Services are at 1 p.m. Tuesday at the funeral home with the Rev. Ray Burgess, First United Methodist Church, officiating. Burial will be in Oak Lawn Cemetery with military honors conferred by the Captain John J. Kelley, Veterans of Foreign Wars Post 1355, Sturgis. Memorials may be directed to the American Cancer Society. Envelopes are available...

The Social Organization of Timucua Indians

Not much can be gathered from our French informants regarding the social organization of those people, but there is enough to show that they had a class of chiefs to whom great respect was paid, indicating resemblances to the oligarchic system of the Creeks. Ribault says: It is their manner to talk and bargain sitting; and the chief or king to be separated from the common people; with a show of great obedience to their kings, elders, and superiors.1 This impression is confirmed by Pareja, the Franciscan missionary, and in addition ho gives us some information regarding both the caste and the clan systems, the only information of this nature accessible to us. Naturally this account leaves much to be desired, but we should rather rejoice at its completeness under the circumstances than complain on account of its omissions. This part of Pareja’s catechism has been published and most of it translated by Gatschet,2 but there are some unfortunate errors and omissions which have made it necessary to go back to the original work. A careful study of this has made the general outlines of the Timucua organization sufficiently plain. Pareja gives the following terms of relationship and their significance along with certain grammatical forms based on them. I have arranged them for convenience under the appropriate stem words. chirico: chirico viro, chirico nia, used by father and mother in speaking to their son and daughter, respectively. ahono: ahono viro, ahono nia, used precisely like the above. Among terms used by males we find this given farther on again as a mode of expression “more used in the interior.’*...

Government of the Timucua Indians

The aristocratic nature of Timucua government is apparent from the statements of the French already referred to as well as from the information regarding their social organization recorded by Pareja. From Pareja’s Catechism it appears that chiefs were allowed to exact tribute and labor from their subjects, and that by way of punishment they sometimes had the arms of their laborers broken.1 From the same source We learn that just before assuming the chieftainship a man had a new fire lighted and maintained for six days in a small house or arbor which was closed up with laurels and “other things.”2 The chiefs wore at times long painted skins, the ends of which were held up from the ground by attendants. Le Moyne figures this3 and the custom is directly confirmed by Laudonnière, whose testimony there is no reason to doubt; otherwise we might regard it as something drawn from the customs of European courts and falsely attributed to the Floridians. These skins were often presented to the French as marks of esteem.4 In giving out drinking water the bearer observed “a certain order and reverence” to each.5 As intimated above, the country appears to have been divided between a limited number of head chiefs, under each of whom were a very much greater number of local chiefs. These little confederacies may have been of the nature of some of the larger Creek groups which consisted of a head town and a number of outsettlements. From Laudonnière we learn that, like Indian tribes generally, tho ancient Floridians observed taboos with reference to women at the time of their monthly...

Burial Customs of Timucua Indians

The following regarding burial customs is from Laudonnière: When a king dieth, they bury him very solemnly, and, upon his grave they set the cup wherein he was wont to drink; and round about the said grave, they stick many arrows, and weep and fast three days together, without ceasing. All the kings which were his friends make the like mourning; and, in token of the love which they bear him, they cut off more than the one-half of their hair, as well men as women. During the space of six moons (so they reckon their months), there are certain women appointed which bewail the death of this king, crying, with a loud voice, thrice a day – to wit, in the morning, at noon, and at evening. All the goods of this king are put into his house, and, afterwards, they set it on fire, so that nothing is ever more after to be seen. The like is done with the goods of the priests; and, besides, they bury the bodies of their priests in their houses, and then set them on fire.1 The mourning rites for persons of the lower orders are not given, but from Pareja it appears that the custom of cutting off the hair was universal.2 He also informs us that some object was placed with the body in the tomb.3 In the narrative of De Grourgues’s expedition Olotocara, the nephew of Saturiwa, is said to have begged De Gourgues “to give unto his wife, if he escaped not, that which he had meant to bestow on him, that she might bury the same...

Ceremonies and Feasts of Timucua Indians

The skill displayed by these Indians in debate is testified to by Spark.1 Laudonnière and Le Moyne describe at considerable length their method of holding councils. Laudonnière says: They take no enterprise in hand, but first they assemble often times their council together, and they take very good advisement before they grow to a resolution. They meet together every morning in a great common house, whither their king repaireth, and setteth him down upon a seat, which is higher than the seats of the others; where all of them, one after another, come and salute him; and the most ancient begin their salutations, lifting up both their hands twice as high as their face, saying, Ha, he, ha! and the rest answer. Ah, ah! As soon as they have done their salutation, every man sitteth him down upon the seats which are round about in the house. If there be anything to entreat of, the king calleth the lawas, that is to say, their priests and the most ancient men, and asketh them their advice. Afterward, he commandeth cassine to be brewed, which is a drink made of the leaves of a certain tree. They drink this cassine2 very hot; he drinketh first, then he causeth to be given thereof to all of them, one after another, in the same bowl, which holdeth well a quart-measure of Paris. They make so great account of this drink, that no man may taste thereof, in this assembly, unless he hath made proof of his valor in the war. Moreover, this drink hath such a virtue, that, as soon as they have...

War Tactics of Florida Indians

The native institution with which the authorities which we depend upon had most to deal was, not unnaturally, war, and 10 of Le Moyne’s 42 sketches deal with it in one way or another. Some of these do not bring in native customs and need not be referred to, but the remainder give us our best information on the subject. Timucua weapons consisted of bows and arrows, darts, and clubs, the last of a type different from the Creek átåsa, if we may trust the illustrations. “A chief who declares war against his enemy,” says Le Moyne, “does not send a herald to do it, but orders some arrows, having locks of hairs fastened at the notches, to be stuck up along the public ways.”1 He gives the following account of the manner in which Saturiwa set out to war against his enemy, Utina: He assembled his men, decorated, after the Indian manner, with feathers and other things, in a level place, the soldiers of Laudonnière being present, and the force sat down in a circle, the chief being in the middle. A fire was then lighted on his left and two great vessels full of water were set on his right. Then, the chief, after rolling his eyes as if excited by anger, uttering some sounds deep down in his throat, and making various gestures, all at once raised a horrid yell; and all his soldiers repeated this yell, striking their hips and rattling their weapons. Then the chief, taking a wooden platter of water, turned toward the sun and worshiped it, praying to it for victory over...

Timucua Religion

According to our French informants the sun and moon were the principal objects of adoration among these Indians, particularly the former.1 This probably means that their beliefs were substantially like those of the Creeks and Chickasaw. A side light on their cult is furnished in the following account of a ceremony by Le Moyne: The subjects of the Chief Outina were accustomed every year, a little before their spring – that is, in the end of February – to take the skin of the largest stag they could get, keeping the horns on it; to stuff it full of all the choicest sorts of roots that grow among them, and to hang long wreaths or garlands of the best fruits on the horns, neck, and other parta of the body. Thus decorated, they carried it, with music and songs, to a very large and splendid level space, where they set it up on a very high tree, with the head and breast toward the sunrise. They then offered prayers to the sun, that he would cause to grow on their lands good things such as those offered him. The chief, with his sorcerer, stands nearest the tree and offers the prayer; the common people, placed at a distance, make responses. Then the chief and all the rest, saluting the sun, depart, leaving the deer’s hide there until the next year. This ceremony they repeat annually.2 Pareja says that there were many different ceremonies, varying from tribe to tribe, and he mentions one called “the ceremony of the laurel performed to serve the Demon.”3 When passing a ledge in the...

Calusa Indians in Florida

An early Spanish writer. Gov. Mendez de Canço, writing in 1598 or 1599, says that the Indians of southern Florida did not live in settled villages because they had no corn, but wandered about in search of fish and roots. Fontaneda, whose information dates from a very early period, has the following to say about the Indians of Calos (Calusa): These Indians possess neither gold nor silver, and still less clothing, for they go almost naked, wearing only a sort of apron. The dress of the men consists of braided palm loaves, and that of the women of moss, which grows on trees and somewhat resembles wool. Their common food consists of fish, turtles, snails, tunny fish, and whales, which they catch in their season. Some of them also eat the wolf fish, but this is not a common thing, owing to certain distinctions which they make between food proper for the chiefs and that of their subjects. On these islands is found a shell-fish known as the langosta, a sort of lobster, and another known in Spain as the chapin (trunk fish), of which they consume not less than the former. There are also on the islands a great number of animals, especially deer; and on some of them large bears are found.1 A later writer says that the Calusa Indians wore gold and other metal on their foreheads, but this was a custom general in the peninsula.2 The people in the interior of the country about Lake Okeechobee, which was called by them “the little ocean”1 were probably related to these Calusa. Fontaneda speaks of them thus:...

Timicua Indians Food

The Florida Indians lived partly upon the natural products of the earth, but depended principally upon the chase, fishing, and agriculture, Laudonnière says: They make the string of their bow of the gut of the stag, or of a stag’s skin, which they know how to dress as well as any man in France, and with as different sorts of colors. They head their arrows with the teeth of fishes, which they work very finely and handsomely.1 Ribault states that the shafts of their arrows were of reed.2 Spark is considerably more detailed: In their warres they vse bowes and arrowes, whereof their bowes are made of a kind of Yew, but blacker than ours, and for the most part passing the strength of the Negros or Indians, for it is not greatly inferior to ours: their arrowes are also of a great length, but yet of reeds like other Indians, but varying in two points, both in length and also for nocks and feathers, which the other lacke, whereby they shoot very stedy: the heads of the same are vipers teeth, bones of fishes, flint stones, piked points of knives, which they hauing gotten of the French men, broke the same, & put the points of them in their arrowes heads: some of them haue their heads of siluer, othersome that haue want of these, put in a kind of hard wood, notched, which pierceth as farre as any of the rest. In their fight, being in the woods, they vse a maruellous pollicie for their owne safegard, which is by clasping a tree in their armes, and...

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