California


General History of the Western Indian Tribes 1851-1870 – Indian Wars

At the Sand Creek Massacre

Up to 1851, the immense uninhabited plains east of the Rocky Mountains were admitted to be Indian Territory, and numerous tribes roamed from Texas and Mexico to the Northern boundary of the United States. Then came the discovery of gold in California, drawing a tide of emigration across this wide reservation, and it became necessary,



Kit Carson, His Life and Adventures – Indian Wars

Kit Carson

The subject of this sketch, Christopher “Kit” Carson, was born on the 24th of December, 1809, in Madison County, Kentucky. The following year his parents removed to Howard County, Missouri, then a vast prairie tract and still further away from the old settlements. The new home was in the midst of a region filled with



Indian Hostilities in California and New Mexico – Indian Wars

General Kearney

The Indian tribes of California are in a degraded and miserable condition. The most numerous are the Shoshonee, the Blackfeet, and the Crows. Many of them have been brought to a half civilized state, and are employed at the different ranches. But those in the neighborhood of the Sierra Nevada are untamable, treacherous, and ferocious.



Big Valley Tribe

Pomo girl photographed by Edward S. Curtis in 1924

Big Valley Tribal members are descendants of the Xa-Ben-Na-Po Band of Pomo Indians that historically have inhabited the Clear Lake area of Lake County, California. In 1851, Big Valley Pomo leaders met with a representative of the President of the United States and all agreed upon a treaty that would allow them to live in



Pomo Basket Making

Pomo Basket

Pomo baskets were used for many practical purposes. The first use of a basket was a baby basket which was well made, and could be transported by placing it on the back and using a net and forehead band, packed at the side, or in the arms. Baskets were also used for food preparation. The



Treaty of August 20, 1851

TREATY MADE AND CONCLUDED AT CAMP LU-PI-YU-MA, AT CLEAR LAKE, STATE OF CALIFORNIA, AUGUST 20, 1851, BETWEEN REDICK McKEE, INDIAN AGENT ON THE PART OF THE UNITED STATES, AND THE CHIEFS, CAPTAINS AND HEAD MEN OF THE CA-LA-NA-PO, HA-BI-NA-PO, ETC., ETC., TRIBES OF INDIANS. A treaty of peace and friendship made and concluded at Camp



History of the Buena Vista Tribe

casus oliver on reservation

The Me-Wuk Indians of the Buena Vista Rancheria are an integral part of California’s Native American history. They lived in and around what is now Amador County for thousands of years.



Management of the California Indian Reservations

The management of these reservations was under one of the ablest Indian rings ever known in America.’ Not a reliable report went in to the Commissioner of Indian Affairs for five years, but their work was so well done that they received compliments for their able accounts of their labors. The total number of Indians



The Curse of Gold

Two months had passed after the tragedy at Wailatpu, and the volunteers were still at The Dalles, when an event occurred that revolutionized the Pacific coast, changed the course of affairs throughout the United States, and visibly affected the entire world. It was the discovery of gold in California, or rather the discovery that it



Massacres of the Mountains

J.P. Dunn wrote Massacres of the Mountains in an attempt to separate historical fact from sensational fiction and to verify the problems that plagued the Indian tribes in this country of years. He doesn’t assign blame, but lets it fall where it belongs by meticulous research and the accurate, unbiased depiction of the true causes and subsequent results of some of the most famous Indian conflicts.



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