In The character of her schools and the facilities for education Idaho has kept fully abreast with the other states of the west. Education in the Gem state has kept pace with her material developments. The future of Idaho as regards educational facilities and advantages is most promising. The munificent grant of land made to the state by the general government, coupled with the minimum price (ten dollars per acre) at which state lands may be sold, secures an endowment amply sufficient to defray all expenses of the public schools. The amount received from the sale of school lands goes into the general school fund, which is irreducible, the interest de-rived from its investment in state bonds and farm mortgages being alone available for the support of the schools. This interest, after but one year's operation of the law providing for sales of land, amounted to over forty thousand dollars per annum. The first school land was sold November 27, 1891. When it is remembered that there are belonging to the state, under the grant for common schools, nearly three million five hundred thousand acres, an idea of the magnitude of the school fund in the near future can be formed. Within a few years it is confidently expected that the common schools of the state will be entirely supported by the income from the state fund, and that local taxation, except for extraordinary purposes, will not be known in connection with the public schools.
Other educational institutions are, like the common schools, munificently endowed. The university, located at Moscow, has a grant of fifty thousand acres, which, at the minimum price of ten dollars an acre, means an irreducible fund for the university of at least five hundred thousand dollars. Very much of this land will sell for twice or thrice the minimum, so that the university may be safely said to have one million dollars represented by her grant of lands. The grant for the support of the normal schools is one hundred thousand acres, and assures for the teachers of Idaho opportunities for technical training equal to the best in the Union. The selection of large tracts of land in all parts of the state, in satisfaction of the grants made by the United States, affords to colonies opportunities to secure thousands of acres in a body, for the establishment of homes and for the acquisition of lands under the most favorable conditions.
The school age is from six to seventeen years. In 1896 there were 39,288 children enrolled in the public schools. On the reorganization of the school system and the passage of the compulsory school law by the legislature, in 1887, a more general attention was given to this subject. As now arranged the school officers consist of a state superintendent of public instruction, a superintendent in each county, and a board of three trustees in each district.
University Of Idaho
The University of Idaho is a part of the educational system of the state. The governing body of the institution is a board of nine regents, appointed by the governor, as provided in its charter. The university aims to complete and crown the work that is begun in the public schools, h\ furnishing ample facilities for liberal education in literature, science and the arts, and for thorough technical training in engineering, mining and agriculture. Through the aid that has been received from the United States and the state, it is enabled to offer its privileges to all persons of either sex, who are qualified for admission.
The university comprises, in accordance with the provisions of its charter, the colleges or departments of arts, letters, agriculture and mechanic arts, mining, applied sciences, engineering, music, freehand and industrial art and graduate study. Six collegiate courses are offered: The classical, leading to the degree of bachelor of arts: the philosophical, leading to the
Educational Advantages In Idaho
degree of bachelor of philosophy; the scientific, leading to the degree of bachelor of science: the civil-engineering, leading to the degree of bachelor of civil engineering; the mining-engineering, leading to the degree of bachelor of mining engineering: the agricultural, leading to the degree of bachelor of agriculture. The master's degree will be conferred upon the fulfillment of the proper conditions. The university not yet having facilities for graduate work beyond the degree of master will not entertain applications for the doctorate degrees.
Moscow, the seat of the university, is the principal city in the northern part of the state, commonly known as the "Panhandle." It is on the main line of the Spokane & Palouse Railroad, a branch of the Northern Pacific, and on a branch of the Spokane line of the Oregon Railway & Navigation Company's lines. The population is about four thousand. The city has electric lights and an abundant supply of pure artesian water. There are several well sustained churches and excellent public schools. The altitude is about twenty-seven hundred feet, the air pure and invigorating and the climate healthful. The winters are neither severe nor prolonged. There is no better climate for effective study.
The university is located upon one of the beautiful rolling hills that environ the city. The prospect is one of the most charming in the famous Palouse country and is an ideal scenic location for an educational institution. The campus comprises twenty acres. North of the main building is a meadow of several acres, which is used as an athletic field and drill ground. In front is a broad terrace, which is devoted entirely to lawn.
The main or administration building is an attractive and commodious structure of three stories and a high basement, finished in California redwood and supplied with artesian water and electric lights. It has cost with furniture one hundred and twenty thousand dollars, and when completed and furnished throughout will represent an outlay of one hundred and thirty-five thousand dollars. At present thirty-five rooms are occupied, the different departments having from one to four rooms as necessity demands.
A wooden building, 50x125, known as the Annex, is located about one hundred feet in the rear of the main building. Standing on the edge of the embankment of the graded area about the university building it consists of one story and basement and two stories in the rear. The main portion of the front affords fair accommodations for the armory. Here are also to be found rooms for the dairy school, cooking school, milk-testing laboratory and a darkroom for the photographic work of the experiment station; also seed, working, tool and store rooms, and excellent cellars for the experiment station. East of the main building stands the greenhouse. The greenhouse proper is 18x50 feet, resting upon a stone foundation with brick and glass sidewalls, wrought iron rafters, cement floor, and every provision known to the best greenhouse construction. In front of the greenhouse is a neat wooden structure 24x34, being the classroom and office of the horticultural department and working-room for the greenhouse.
The library of the university is composed of a general library and the technical libraries of agriculture, art, chemistry, botany, civil engineering, languages, mathematics, mechanic arts, military tactics, mining, physics and zoology. At present the library contains three thousand purchased volumes, thirty-one hundred government documents, and over ninety-five hundred pamphlets, files of magazines, newspapers; and agricultural bulletins and reports. The general library and reading-room occupies a large, well lighted room on the first floor of the university building. The technical libraries are kept in the rooms of the respective departments. The station library has been organized and placed in the general library. This consists of books on general station work, government documents and files of bulletins and agricultural papers. The bulletins are arranged according to states and topics and made available by a special card catalogue of over fifteen thousand numbers.
The various laboratories are conveniently arranged and supplied with necessary equipments for the proper illustration of the several courses of study implied. The necessary expenses of the student in the university are very low as com-pared with other institutions affording equal advantages. The various courses of study are admirably arranged for effective work On the part of students and the faculty and corps of supple
Educational Advantages In Idaho
mental instructors are all strong in their respective fields.
The preparatory school is sustained expressly for preparing students for the college courses. Its courses are so arranged as to facilitate preparation for college. No instruction is given in the elementary sciences, except physiology, as the sciences are fully treated in the collegiate department. Accordingly students devote their entire time in the preparatory courses to those branches that lead directly to the college courses. The preparatory school is under the immediate supervision of the president and faculty. This insures a high order of instruction and thoroughly harmonizes its methods with those of the university proper. While the courses, as stated above, are strictly college preparatory, they are nevertheless thoroughly practical, being divested of non-essentials, and invaluable to those who do not contemplate entering the university.
The personnel of the present board of regents is as follows: Hon. James H. Forney (president), Hon. Frank Martin (vice-president), Hon. Frank E. Cornwall (secretary), Hon. John G. Brown, Hon. D. M. Eckman, Hon. James H. Hawley, Hon. A. F. Parker, Hon Warren Truitt, Mrs. M. J. Whitman. Hon. W. L. Payne is treasurer.
The faculty of the university as at present constituted is as follows, the scholastic assignment of each member being given in the connection: Joseph P. Blanton, A. M., LL. D. (president), philosophy; Charles W. McCurdy, Ph. D., professor of chemistry; Willard K. Clement, Ph. D., professor of Latin and Greek; Louis F. Henderson, Ph. B., professor of botany; John M. Aldrich, M. S., professor of zoology; Harriett E. Cushman, A. M., professor of English language and literature; John E. Bonebright, B. S., professor of physics; Fred G. Frink, B. S., professor of civil engineering; Alfred S. Miller, Ph. D., professor of mining and metallurgy; Hiram T. French, M. S., professor of agriculture; Fred A. Huntley, B. S. A., professor of horticulture; S. Annette Bowman, acting professor of free-hand drawing; L J. Cogswell. B. M. acting professor of music; Aurelia L Henry, B. L., acting professor of elocution and physical culture and instructor in French; Thorn Smith, B. S., assistant chemist and instructor in chemistry; J. J. Anthony Ph. B., instructor in mechanic arts and preparatory mathematics; Sara E. Foe, B. L., instructor in English in preparatory department; Flora P. Moore, B. S., instructor in history and German; Gurry E. Huggins, B. L., instructor in military science and tactics and Latin; Herbert T. Condon, registrar and secretary of the faculty; Stella M. Allen, Ph. B., librarian; John M. Aldrich, curator of museum.
The following interesting data are gleaned from the annual report of the president of the board of regents for the fiscal year ending December 31, 1898:
The University of Idaho was chartered by the territorial legislature in 1889, and located at Moscow. The university and agricultural college were wisely combined, making their support by the state comparatively easy, when aided by the several federal funds set apart for the support 01 colleges of agriculture and mechanic arts and agricultural experiment stations. A state tax for building purposes was levied for several years. Through this, one hundred and twenty-five thousand dollars was raised for the construction of the present attractive and commodious main building. Its entire central 'part, however, above the basement and first story, is still unfinished.
The university opened in October 1892 with a faculty of two. This has been steadily increased and now numbers nineteen. Among these are graduates from institutions like Cornell, Oberlin, Leland Stanford and Northwestern, the universities of California, Michigan and Missouri, and the agricultural colleges of Iowa, Michigan and South Dakota. The enrollment in 1897 was two hundred and forty-eight, eighty-seven of these being in the college classes; the enrollment to date is two hundred and nine, of whom eighty-one are in the college classes. The enrollment of the present year has been considerably affected by two causes, the lowest preparatory class has been discontinued (this would have had a membership of not less than fifty), and thirty-nine of the young men, nearly all of them college students, enlisted in the Idaho Volunteers and are now stationed at Manila. These two factors will account for the apparent falling off in this year's enrollment. As the public high schools of the state had come into closer touch with the university and had adjusted their courses to meet its requirements, it was decided, on account of the crowded condition of the rooms available, to discontinue the lowest preparatory year. The faculty were exceedingly loath to take this action, as they knew that there were many worthy youths applying for admission, who had no high-school advantages at home, and who tame to the university to receive what they could not get in their neighborhood schools, but it was found impossible, with the present faculties and teaching force, to accommodate them without neglecting the higher instruction which seemed the more legitimate function of the institution. When the building is
Educational Advantages In Idaho
finished it might be wise to reinstate this preparatory year.
It is a matter that should excite the patriotic pride of every citizen of the state that the University of Idaho furnished a larger number of soldiers to the late war, relative to enrollment, than any other university in the United States.
Nine courses of study have been offered for the past two years. These are the classical, the philosophical, the civil engineering, the mining engineering, the agricultural, and the four courses in science, with botany, chemistry, zoology and mathematics and physics as major subjects. Considerable freedom of election prevails. Advanced courses in art, elocution, oratory and music are offered. The university has a department of music with a course of four years, leading to a diploma. The departments of mining, agriculture and horticulture have made special efforts to be of practical assistance to the people of the state of Idaho along the lines where so much of its prosperity lies. The professor of mining, besides making frequent assays for miners in all sections of the state, has given two short practical courses in assaying for the benefit of prospectors and mining men. These were well attended. The agriculturist, assisted by other members of the experiment station staff, has conducted numerous investigations, the results of which have been already published, or are being prepared for the press. Members of the staff have visited various sections of the state repeatedly in response to appeals and have materially assisted in combating many pests which seriously threaten our agricultural and horticultural interests. It is the purpose of the agricultural department to hold numerous farmers' institutes during the coming winter and spring.
In the summer of 1896, the citizens of Moscow purchased a fine farm of ninety-four acres and presented it to the university for the use of the college of agriculture and experiment station. Suitable barns and outbuildings have been erected and the practical value of the gift is already evident.
A course in manual training is offered, instruction in the use of tools and in wood-working being furnished to all young men pursuing courses requiring a knowledge of this subject, and in wood-carving to all young women who may elect it. The Morrill act, under which we draw our aid in instruction in the mechanic arts, requires that students, so desiring, shall be given manual training in both wood and iron.
The Lewiston State Normal School
The history of the Lewiston State Normal School is the history of progress. Handicapped for want of funds on several occasions, the normal building came to a standstill and the school was not inaugurated as early as was expected; but from the 6th of January, 1896, when the school was first opened, there has been a steady development until to-day the school has a future in every way most encouraging.
In the erection of an excellent building, in the selection of teachers and in the general management the trustees have been most harmonious and fortunate. The buildings, enclosures and grounds were completed and dedicated with appropriate ceremonies on June 3, 1896.
The Albion Normal School
This institution was established by an act of the second legislative assembly of Idaho, March 7, 1893, as one of the two normal schools of the state, the other one being located at Lewiston, Nez Perces county. It was at first thought by many to be a mistake for the young state to at-tempt to support two schools of this character, but when it is considered that the two sections of the state, the north and the south, are separated by almost impassable mountain barriers, and that a journey of several hundred miles, passing through two other states, is necessary in order to pass from one section to the other, the necessity of two schools for the training of teachers is apparent. The common schools are the hope of the future state, and we cannot have the highest and best results in them without trained teachers. The Albion Normal School is the only state institution of learning in southern Idaho, and the people are coming to more fully appreciate the importance of maintaining it liberally.
The College Of Idaho
One of the promising young institutions of the state of Idaho is the one whose official title is given above. Though but a few years old it has already taken a distinctive position among the educational institutions of the northwest and is destined to exercise vast power, if it may be judged by what has already been accomplished. Nothing is a surer index to the civilization and progress of a community than the character of its schools and the opportunities which are afforded to the rising generation in the acquisition of knowledge, and undoubtedly one of the secrets of the success achieved by the American people lies in the fact that they, as a people, have always encouraged and loyally supported the cause of education.
The College of Idaho was formally organized
Educational Advantages In Idaho
October 7, 1891, its first board of managers being Rev. J. H. Barton, of Boise City, Rev. W. J. Boone, of Caldwell, and J. M. Jones, of Nampa. The first sessions of the school were held in the side room of the Presbyterian Church at Caldwell, and it was not until the ensuing year that the college building was ready for occupancy. Rev. W. J. Boone was elected to serve as president, and has continued faithfully at the head of the management since the inception of the enterprise. The college is now out of debt and is self-sustaining, and, encouraged and upheld by the memory of past victories, is pressing forward to larger power.
The college opens on the 21st of September and closes on the 22d of June (approximately). The terms are moderate, the regular academic department course being but twenty-five dollars a year. Over three hundred students have been accommodated at the college and forty have been graduated from here. Some have gone forth as teachers and many have gone east to obtain still higher advantages in the fine old universities of their fathers and grandfathers.
The first faculty of the College of Idaho included John C. Rice, A. M., professor of Greek and mathematics; John T. Morrison, A. M., history and English; C. S. Blatchley, B. S., elocution; Edward E. Maxey, M. D., physiology; Charles A. Hand, drawing; L. A. Hemphill, Ph. D., German and Latin. The present faculty and the chairs occupied are as follows: W. J. Boone, M. A., natural science and Latin; Abbie F. Hull, English and mathematics; Ambrose P. Hayden, M. A., Greek and German; J. H. Barton, M. A., Evidences of Christianity; Grace D. M. Morrison, M. B., piano and harmony; Elma Brown, painting and drawing; H. O. Douglass, M. A., bookkeeping and commercial law; Nettie Doug-lass, typewriting and stenography; Albert F. Isham, M. D., practical chemistry; William C. Maxey, M. D., American history, and Abbott Satterthwait, hygiene.
Among the institutions which indicate the intellectual progress and status of the state of Idaho is Weiser Academy, which has made for itself a most excellent record and has contributed in no small degree to the mental and moral advancement of this section of the Gem of the Mountains. There are at least two prominent essentials in the constitution of a desirable citizen, a conscience and an enlightened common sense. The Christian church and the Christian school are the two most potent agencies in the production of these necessary elements of character, and our Pilgrim Fathers made no mistake when they built a church in every settlement and a schoolhouse by its side. Actuated by the same high moral idea, patriotic men have gone west and founded Christian missions and Christian schools on the frontier. Among the most notable founded in recent years are the Weiser church and Weiser Academy, at Weiser, Idaho. The work which has resulted in the means of grace and of enlightenment was begun in 1892, when the Rev. E. A. Paddock was commissioned as missionary to Idaho by the Congregational Home Missionary Society, of New York city. The work of erecting a church building was begun in November of that year, and within twelve months from the time ground was broken there was completed a church which, together with the lot it occupied, cost nearly four thousand dollars. The Church Building Society made a grant of five hundred dollars, and benevolent persons in the east contributed a large part of the balance required.
It was evident to Mr. Paddock that a Christian school was needed also. Miss Miriam Lee. an earnest Christian young lady, whose home had formerly been in New York city, consented to unite with him in the enterprise. The school was opened with five pupils in the new church building. The next year a hotel building was rented for its use. The school was successful and, enlarging the scope of its work, more teachers were needed, and it was evident that some one must be found who would be as self-denying as the founders of the school. Miss Lee remained as lady principal, and the Rev. A. G. Upton, formerly home-missionary superintendent of New York, accepted the presidency.
The second year was even more successful than the first, and the academy abundantly proved its right to be; but the success achieved demanded greater things for the future. Eighty acres of land were donated for the academy campus and building grounds by H. A. Lee, of Weiser, and a
Educational Advantages In Idaho
gentleman who is a warm friend of every good enterprise advanced the money at a low rate of interest to erect three buildings for the use of the academy. The school is picturesquely located about one mile to the north of the village, and, situated on an elevation, it commands a fine view of the town, the surrounding country and the two rivers the Snake and the Weiser which here unite. The academy buildings consist of a three-story hall, with first-class appointments for young women; a two-story dormitory for young men; and a two-and-a-half-story recitation building, the last containing a chapel, library and reading room, president's office and recitation rooms. Students may pursue the classical, philosophical, scientific or English courses, and there is an excellent music department in connection. Training is "also given in elocution, oratory and physical culture. All work done in the school is of the highest order, exalted ideals being continually placed before the pupils, thus stimulating them to greater effort. The library contains more than a thousand volumes and pamphlets, including standard works of reference, together with the best literature and the modern magazines of worth. Although the majority of the trustees must always be Congregational, the school is non-sectarian, several denominations being rep-resented among both teachers and pupils.
The high standard of work done in the school is evidenced by the fact that a certificate of graduation there from will entitle the holder to admission to some of the leading colleges of the east without further examination. Already a small endowment fund has been started, and the academy is now in a very flourishing condition. Ten pupils have been graduated from the school, which is now only five years old. A paper called The Search Light is published in the interest of the academy, and now has a circulation of four thousand, making the school well known in the east. The faculty consists of seven able teachers, including Augustus G. Upton, A. M., D. D., president, and Miss Miriam B. Lee, lady principal. Under the able superintendence of Dr. Upton and his corps of assistants Weiser Academy has taken a place among the leading schools of its character in the northwest and is a credit to the town and the state. The institution is incorporated as Weiser College and Academy, but the college department will not be opened before the fall of 1900.
The educational work, however, is only a part of that done by the academy, for the Christian influence exerted over the students is most marked. Nearly all of the students become Christians be-fore leaving the school, and they engage in active Christian work at once, both as students and when they are at home on their vacations. The communities whence the students come are thus leavened and the influence of the academy is felt in many needy places.
The Boise Business And Shorthand College
Miss Grace E. Doyle, proprietor of the Boise Business and Shorthand College, is in every sense of the word a practical, energetic, young woman, possessing rare natural abilities and skill as an instructor and the culture and refinement of a lady. She is recognized as one of the most polished and efficient young women of Idaho.
She was born in the state of Nebraska, of American-Irish parents of no mean attainments. Inheriting a fine mental but frail physical constitution, her parents with wise foresight saw the necessity of an early training in business, its management and methods. They placed her in one of the colleges of her native state, where her general education was well rounded and followed by one of the most complete and thorough business courses extant.
Since coming to the state of Idaho, where the enfranchisement of women gives them equal representation with their brothers, she perceived the necessity of a wider business education for the young of both sexes, and. associated with James W. McKinney, established the Boise Business and Shorthand College. Two years later Miss Doyle became sole proprietor of the present successful and well known institution, which is a daily tribute to her business ability, energy and skill as a teacher. The educational enterprise of this young woman is one of which the state of Idaho may be justly proud, and it has met with hearty appreciation and support of the business people of Boise and southern Idaho. The following testimonial reflects the general sentiment of the businessmen of Boise:
May 20, 1899.
Miss Grace E. Doyle, Proprietor Boise Business and Shorthand College, Boise, Idaho:
Miss Doyle: Boise may well be proud in possessing such an institution as the Boise Business and Shorthand College, The Boise Chamber of Commerce unhesitatingly gives your college and its proprietor its most hearty endorsement,
Boise Chamber of Commerce,
Fred, R. Reed, President,
Attest: S. M, Coffin, Secretary