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Who Aguinaldo Is.
Emilio Aguinaldo was born March 22, 1869, at Cavite, Viejo.
When twenty-five years old he was elected Mayor of Cavite.
On August 21, 1896, Aguinaldo became leader
of the insurgents. The revolution started on
He fought four battles with the Spaniards and was victorious in all. He lost but ten men, to the Spaniards 125.
On December 24, 1897, a peace was established between Aguinaldo and the Spanish.
Aguinaldo received $400,000, but the rest of the conditions of peace were never carried out.
In June last Aguinaldo issued a proclamation, expressing a desire for the establishment of a native administration in the Philippines under an American protectorate.
In an interview with a World correspondent at that time he expressed himself as grateful to Americans.
In July he issued a proclamation fixing the 12th day of that month for the declaration of the independence of the Philippines.
In November Aguinaldo defied General Otis, refusing to release his Spanish prisoners.
The Cabinet on December 2 cabled General Otis to demand the release of the prisoners.
Emilio Aguinaldo, Military Dictator of the Filipinos
Aguinaldo The Man.
In his features, face and skull Aguinaldo looks more like a European than a Malay.
He is what would be called a handsome man, and might be compared with many young men in the province of Andalusia, Spain. If there be truth in phrenology he is a man above the common. Friends and enemies agree that he is intelligent, ambitious, far-sighted, brave, self-controlled, honest, moral, vindictive, and at times cruel. He possesses the quality which friends call wisdom and enemies call craft. According to those who like him he is courteous, polished, thoughtful and dignified; according to those who dislike him he is insincere, pretentious, vain and arrogant. Both admit him to be genial, generous, self-sacrificing, popular and capable in the administration of affairs. If the opinion of his foes be accepted he is one of the greatest Malays on the page of history. If the opinion of his friends be taken as the criterion he is one of the great men of history irrespective of race.--The Review of Reviews.
Facts from Felipe Agoncillo's Letter in Leslie's Magazine
Sixty per cent, of the inhabitants can read and write.
The women in education are on a plane with the men.
Each town of 5,000 inhabitants has two schools for children of both sexes. The towns of 10,000 inhabitants have three schools. There are technical training schools in Manila, Iloilo, and Bacoler. "In these schools are taught cabinet work, silversmithing, lock-smithing, lithography, carpentering, machinery, decorating, sculpture, political economy, commercial law, book-keeping, and commercial correspondence, French and English; and there is one superior college for painting, sculpture and engraving. There is also a college of commercial exports in Manila, and a nautical school, as well as a superior school of agriculture. Ten model farms and a meteorological observatory are conducted in other provinces, together with a service of geological studies, a botanical garden and a museum, a laboratory and military academy and a school of telegraphy."
Manila has a girl's school (La Ascuncion) of elementary and superior branches, directed by French, English and Spanish mothers, which teaches French, English literature, arithmetic, algebra, trigonometry, topography, physics, geology, universal history, geography, designing, music, dress-making and needle-work. The capital has besides a municipal school of primary instruction and the following colleges: Santa Ysabel, Santa Catolina, La Concordia, Santa Rosa de la Looban, a hospital of San Jose, and an Asylum of St. Vincent de Paul, all of which are places of instruction for children. There are other elementary schools in the State of Camannis, in Pasig, in Vigan and Jaro.
The entire conduct of the civilization of the Philippines as well as local authorities are in the hands of the Philipinos themselves. They also had charge of the public offices of the government during the last century.
There is a medical school and a school for mid-wives.
"All the young people and especially the boys, belonging to well-to-do families residing in the other islands go to Manila to study the arts and learn a profession. Among the natives to be ignorant and uneducated, is a shameful condition of degradation."
"The sons of the rich families began to go to Spain in 1854" to be educated.
Felipe Agoncillo Emissary of the Filipinos to the United States.
When the Spaniards first went to the islands "they found the Philipinos enlightened and advanced in civilization." "They had founderies for casting iron and brass, for making guns and powder. They had their special writing with two alphabets, and used paper imported from China and Japan." This was in the early part of the sixteenth century. The Spanish government took the part of the natives against the imposition of exhorbitant taxes, and the tortures of the inquisition by the early settlers.
The highest civilization exists in the island of Luzon but in some of the remote islands the people are not more than "enlightened." The population embraced in Anguinaldo's dominion is 10,000,000, scattered over a territory in area approaching 200,000 square miles. The Americans up to this time have conquered only about 143 square miles of this territory.
What takes place in the South concerning the treatment of Negroes is known in the Philippines. The Philipino government on the 27th of February, 1899, issued from Hong Kong the following decree warning the Philipino people as follows:
|"Manila has witnessed the most
horrible outrages, the confiscation
of the properties and savings of the
people at the point of the bayonet,
the shooting of the defenseless,
accompanied by odious acts of
abomination repugnant barbarism and
social hatred, worse than the doings
in the Carolinas."
They are told of America's treatment of the black population, and are made to feel that it is better to die fighting than become subject to a nation where, as they are made to believe, the colored man is lynched and burned alive indiscriminately. The outrages in this country is giving America a bad name among the savage people of the world, and they seem to prefer savagery to American civilization, such as is meted out to her dark-skinned people.
History of Negro Soldiers in the Spanish-American War, and other items of Interest, 1899