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Indians in World War 2

Native Americans played the same rolls as many other Americans who entered into World War 2. They enlisted, fought in battles, suffered wounds, many were killed, some were captured, some received medals. Many of the women and men who didn’t go off to war, still participated at home, joining service groups and volunteering their time. This manuscript provides stories of these brave men and women Native Americans who fought for freedom during World War 2, casualty lists of injured, POW’s and KIA’s, as well as taking a brief look at the most important Navajo Code Talkers roll in WW2.

Indian Service Employees in World War 2

Twenty-one employees of the Indian Service gave their lives for the cause of freedom and justice, some of them in action against the enemy, some in training, some by accident, and some by illness. There will be more names to add to the list when the reckoning is completed. Captain Homer Claymore, pilot of a B-17 bomber in the 8th Air Force, has been missing for many months and must be presumed lost. He was employed as a baker at Pine Ridge before he entered the AAF. Lt. Orian Wynn, of the Consolidated Ute Agency, was reported missing after a raid on enemy territory from his base in Italy. The prisoners of was released by the victorious armies of the United Nations include Soldier Sanders, baker at the Sequoyah School, Wallace Tyner, clerk at Jicarilla, and Marion Chadacloi, assistant at Navajo. They were all prisoners of the Germans. Cornelius Gregory, teacher at Fort Sill, spent eleven months interned in Sweden, following a raid on Germany during which his plane was damaged and had to land in neutral territory. Mrs. Etta S. Jones teacher, who was captured when the Japanese invaded the island of Attu in June 1941, was found in a camp near Tokyo and brought back to the United States. Her husband, who was a special assistant and operated the radio station on the island, was killed at the time of the invasion. Dr. Sidney E. Seid, formerly physician at the Chilocco School, survived more that three years’ imprisonment in Japan. Still to be heard from are Louis E. Williams, clerk at Pine Ridge, and Roy J. House,...

A Family of Braves

Six grandsons of the Reverend Ben Brave, retired Sioux minister, have shown their patriotism by donning uniforms. Four went into the Army, one into the Navy, and one into the Coast Guard. Staff Sgt. Francis E. Brave received the Silver Star for gallantry in action, evacuating 30 German prisoners to the rear under enemy fire on Anzio beachhead. “During the two hours required for the trip, “to quote the citation,” Sergeant Brave had to wade through waist-deep water and frequently had to take cover from enemy tank and mortar shells; however, he controlled his prisoners and brought them to the proper collecting point. Sergeant Brave’s gallant conduct made possible the early gathering of important information from the prisoners and reflects much credit on the Army of the United States.” Staff Sgt. Waldron A. Frazier, also a grandson of the Reverend Brave, served with the Second Troop Carrier Squadron for four years, during two of which he was stationed successively in China, India, and Burma. As crew chief of the “Thunderbird,” one of the big transport planes, he had more than 125 hours of combat flying time, and he wore the Air Medal, the Pacific Theater Ribbon with two battle stars and the American Defense Ribbon. His group won two Presidential Unit citations. Last December he was killed in a plane crash while being invalided home. Nearly four hundred of the “The Chief’s” friends decided to do something in his memory. Accordingly, they bought for his little girl, Ilona Joyce, $1,025 worth of War Bonds; and sent a check for the $14.45 left over from the purchases. Among the donors...

Indian Prisoners of War Released

Many Indians reported as prisoners of war have now been released and have come home again. Lt. Frank Paisano, Jr., a prisoner of the Germans, has returned to Laguna Pueblo. During his absence he was awarded the Air Medal, which his wife accepted in his name. Omar Schoenborn, Chippewa, once reported dead, was one of 83 men who escaped death when the prison ship carrying them to Japan was sunk off Leyte. He managed to swim ashore and to hide from the Japanese until the arrival of the American forces. Gilmore C. Daniels, Osage, who joined the Royal Canadian Air Force early in the war, spent nearly four years in a German prison camp before the advancing armies released him. Another Osage, Major Edward E. Tinker, a nephew of General Clarence Tinker, was taken prisoner when he crashed in Bulgaria, and was freed by the Russian advance. Among the American prisoners released by the 6th Ranger Battalion from Cabanatuan Prison in the Philippines on January 30, 1945, was Major Caryl L. Picotte, Sioux-Omaha, formerly of Nebraska, but now stationed in Oakland, California. Major Picotte was called to active duty with the Air Corps in September 1941, and sent to the Philippines. On his arrival in Manila he was assigned to duty as Associate Engineering Officer at the Philippine Air Depot, Nichols Field. Major Picotte was called to active duty with the Air Corps in September 1941, and sent to the Philippines. On his arrival in Manila he was assigned to duty as Associate Engineering Officer at the Philippine Air Depot, Nichols Field. After the Japanese air attack on Nichols...

Indian Women Work for War Victory

Indian women, anxious to help out during the war-created manpower shortage, have made an astonishingly large contribution to their country’s needs. Thousands of them have left their homes to work in factories, on ranches and farms, and even as section hands to replace men who were vitally needed elsewhere. They have joined the nurses’ corps, the military auxiliaries, the Red Cross, and the American Women’s Voluntary Service. Not content with this, they have given their services in many other and more unusual ways. More than 500 Eskimo and Indian women and girls worked day and night manufacturing skin clothing, mittens, mukluks, moccasins, snowshoes, and other articles of wearing apparel for our forces serving in cold weather or at high altitudes. An Alaskan Indian woman ran a trap line to make money for war bonds. Cherokee girls wove and sold baskets, buying war stamps with the money. On the Eastern Cherokee reservation, women and girls planted and harvested the crops, and even drove tractors. Forty Chippewa women formed a rifle brigade for home defense. An old Kiowa woman gave $1000 to the Navy Relief Fund as her contribution. Osage women, draped in their brilliant blankets, spent long hours at sewing machines for the Red Cross. In the West, a Pueblo woman drove a truck between Albuquerque and Santa Fe, New Mexico, delivering milk to the Indian school. She not only serviced her own truck but also helped at the school garage as a mechanic. Many Indian women became silversmiths, and made Insignia for the armed forces. At Fort Wingate, New Mexico, the Navajo women’s work ranged from that of chemists...

To the Indian Veteran

The Congress and the state legislatures have passed many low providing various benefits for all veterans except those who have been dishonorably discharged from the armed services. Many of you know what these benefits one; but when you come home you will find at the agency someone who can tell you just how to apply for the benefits which you want, and what you must do to qualify. There is no distinction made between Indians and any other veterans. Every organization serving the veteran will serve you. Your Selective Service Board to which you report within ten days after your return home, will have a counselor to advise; and the State agencies, the Red Cross, and other groups will provide information and counsel. The Indian Service will make every effort to direct you to the proper authority as quickly as possible. If the first thing in your mind is employment, you probably know that you are entitled to get your old job back, or one with equal pay and standing, provided that you have completed your military service satisfactorily, that you are still able to do the job, that you apply for reinstatement with 90 days of your discharge and that your employer will not suffer undue hardship by taking you back. Once you are on the job, you may not be dismissed without cause for the period of one year. This is true for Civil Service employees and for those in private industry. If you didn’t have a job when you went into the military service, or it you don’t want to go back to the job you...

Indians Work for the Navy

By Lt. Frederick W. Sleight, USNR The story of the American Indian and his efforts in this second great world struggle is not limited to the exploits of soldiers. Men and women too old or too young for service with the armed forces have volunteered for work in the war industries as well as in food production. This report on one of the U.S. Navy’s greatest land-based activities illustrates the intense desire of the Indian people to serve where they are directly connected with the work of the war. The Naval Supply Depot at Clearfield, Utah, has as its aim and purpose general service to the fleet. It sends out a lifeline of supplies, pouring the essentials of successful warfare in an endless stream to the far points of the Pacific theatre. The Depot was established in the spring of 1943, to start the flow of vital materials to the Navy. At this time, down in the Rio Grande Valley of New Mexico, Indians were leaving home for military service. Ten per cent of the Pueblo Indians had gone into uniform. In the neighboring cities and the local communities help was urgently needed. The older men of the Pueblos, recognizing the emergency, decided to put an advertisement in the local papers offering their services for part-time work in the neighboring area. Soon trucks come pouring into the villages to pick up working parties, some even arriving from Colorado. When word of this project reached the offices of the Civil Service Commission in Denver, they sent a representative to Santa Domingo Pueblo to confer with John Bird, an Indian leader...

Utah, Washington, Wisconsin, Wyoming Indians Wounded in Action

The following Indians Wounded in Action, are listed by Name, Tribe and Location of death. The name under the photograph is the person shown.  No additional information was provided in the book. Utah Sammy Arrats, Ute, Tarawa Richard Burson, Ute, Iwo Jima Alfred Parriette, Ute, Pacific Harvey Natchees, Ute, Belgium Henry Drye, Paiute, Italy Washington James Wilson, Swinomish, New Guinea Harold Jackson, Clallam James R. Alexander, Lummi, France Howard A. George, Lummi, Germany Benjamin W. Hillaire, Lummi, Germany Anthony Jefferson, Lummi, France Bert H. Jefferson, Lummi, Philippines Forrest L. Kinley, Lummi, Philippines Charles Owens, Europe Bernard Bumgarner, Quinaielt, Europe William Hicks, Quinaielt, Europe Emanuel S. Alfred, Suquamish, Pacific Aloysius Belmont, Suquamish, Europe Leonard Lawrence, Suquamish, Anzio Charles Lawrence, Suquamish, France Steven E. Williams, Tulalip, Philippines Roy Smith, Makah, Europe Frank H. Smith, Makah, Europe Antonio Rogers, Chehalis, Germany Wisconsin Ervin Doxtator, Oneida Dean King, Oneida, Belgium Joseph H. Metoxen, Oneida, France Eastman Skenandore, Oneida, Leyte Ernest Skenandore, Oneida, Belgium Aaron L. Smith, Oneida, Belgium Casterson Swamp, Oneida Warren Swamp, Oneida, Italy Abraham Webster, Oneida Raymond D. Deer, Winnebago Daniel Snowball, Winnebago Andrew Thundercloud, Winnebago, Pacific Murray Whiterabbit, Winnebago Norman Winneshiek, Winnebago Charles Beouprey, Menominee, Europe Frank Dodge, Menominee, Europe Joseph Duquain, Menominee, Europe Gust Kinney, Menominee, Europe Mose Neosh, Menominee, Europe Mose Neosh, Menominee, Europe Lloyd Gauthier, Menominee, Europe John O’Kachecum, Menominee, Europe Joseph L. Pecore, Menominee, Europe John Shawanopenass, Menominee, Europe Joseph Smith, Menominee, Europe Mitchell Sturdevant, Menominee, Europe Edward Tucker, Menominee, Europe Benedict Warrington, Menominee, Europe Gilbert Waupoose, Menominee, Europe James Zhuckkahosee, Kickapoo, Europe Lloyd Tourtillot, Menominee, Philippines ter A. Tucker, Menominee, Philippines Earl J. Pecore, Menominee,...

Oregon and South Dakota Indians Wounded in Action

The following Indians Wounded in Action, are listed by Name, Tribe and Location of death. The name under the photograph is the person shown.  No additional information was provided in the book. Oregon John Sampson, Cayuse-Umatilla, France Edson Chiloquin, Klamath-Modoc Roland Jackson, Klamath-Paiute LeRoy A. Moore, Klamath-Madoc Marvin J. Walker, Klamath John Jackson, Jr., Klamath South Dakota Theodore Taylor, Sioux (Flandreau), New Guinea Ralph Gullickson, Sioux (Flandreau) Aochen Warren Gullickson, Sioux (Flandreau), Leyte Woodrow Keeble, Sioux (Sisseton), North Africa Francis Adams, Sioux (Sisseton), Italy Joseph Gray, Sioux (Sisseton), Germany Leroy Heminger, Sioux (Sisseton), France Nathan Wilson, Sioux (Sisseton), Germany Floyd P. Deegon, Sioux (Sisseton), Palous Herman Thompson, Sioux (Sisseton), Philippines Louis M DeCoteau, Sioux (Sisseton), Germany Louis Provost, Omaha, Belgium Leo Shot With Two Arrows, Sioux (rosebud), Germany Enoch Bald Eagle, Sioux (Cheyenne River) Edward Eagle Boy, Sioux (Cheyenne River) Philip Elk Head, Sioux (Cheyenne River) Joe Paul Fourbear, Sioux (Cheyenne River) Joe Gray, Sioux (Cheyenne River) Robert C. Hale, Sioux (Cheyenne River) James Hand Boy, Sioux (Cheyenne River) Charles Hiatt, Sioux (Cheyenne River) Lawrence Horn, Sioux (Cheyenne River) Clifford Iron Moccasin, Sioux (Cheyenne River) Charles Kessler, Sioux (Cheyenne River) George Knife, Sioux (Cheyenne River) Charles Lofferty, Sioux (Cheyenne River) Levi LeBeau, Sioux (Cheyenne River) Vincent J. LeBeau, Sioux (Cheyenne River) Louis LeCompte, Sioux (Cheyenne River) Roy R. Smith, Sioux (Cheyenne River) Sampson One Skunk, Sioux (Cheyenne River) Ziebach Thompson, Sioux (Cheyenne River) Cecil Curley, Sioux (Cheyenne River) Gomet Black Bear, Sioux (Cheyenne River) Robert Manley, Sioux (Cheyenne River) Aloysius A. Fielder, Sioux (Cheyenne River) Earl Kessler, Sioux (Cheyenne River) Douglas Collins, Sioux (Cheyenne River) Philip LaBlanc, Sioux (Cheyenne...

Oklahoma Indians Wounded in Action

The following Indians Wounded in Action, are listed by Name, Tribe and Location of death. The name under the photograph is the person shown.  No additional information was provided in the book. Rudoph Allen, Tonkawa, Europe Oland Kemble, Pnoca, France Levi Horsechief, Pawnee, Europe Marcellus Choteau, Kaw, Philippines Gale New Moon, Ponca, Europe Lawrence Good Fox Jr., Pawnee, Europe James Armstrong, Jr., Caddo-Cheyenne, Pacific Francis Bates, Arapaho, Europe Harold S. Beard, Cheyenne-Arapaho, Aleutians Rubin Bent, Quapaw-Cheyenne, Europe Oliver Black, Cheyenne, Europe Richard Boynton, Jr., Cheyenne-Arapaho, Europe Roy Bullcoming, Cheyenne, Europe Richard Curtis, Jr. , Cheyenne, Mediterranean William M. Fletcher, , Cheyenne, Iwo Jima Paul Goodbear, Cheyenne, Europe John Greaney, Jr. , Cheyenne, Pacific Charles F. Gurrier, Sioux-Cheyenne, Pacific Warren L. Hawk, Cheyenne, Kiska James Holland, Jr., Arapaho, Pacific Darwin Lane Elk, Cheyenne, Pacific Henry Mann, Cheyenne, Holland Edward B. Mule, Cheyenne, Europe Ray Night Walking, Cheyenne, Europe Lee Old Camp, Jr., Cheyenne-Arapaho, Pacific Willie Orange, Cheyenne, Pacific William F. Pawnee, Arapaho, Europe David Penn, Cheyenne, Europe Philip Strongwolf, Cheyenne, Europe Elmer C. Surveyor, Cheyenne, Europe George Swallow, Cheyenne, Europe Everett Sweezy, Arapaho-Oneida, Europe William Tallbird, Jr., Cheyenne, Europe Harvey West, Cheyenne, Pacific Solus B. Lewis, Creek, Europe Isaac McCurtain, Choctaw, Europe Luther King, Choctaw, Sicily Richmond J. Lorney, Seminole, France Houston Palmer, Creek, Anzio Jacob Fish, Five Civilized Tribes, Huertgen Forest Chester Underwood, Five Civilized Tribes, Germany Henry N. Greenwood, Chickasaw, Italy Tom Fixico, Creek, Sicily, Italy Joe Fixico, Creek, Anzio, France John P. Lowe, Creek, Anzio, France Jack Bruner, Creek, Italy Danny Marshall, Creek, France, Italy Munzie Barnett, Creek, Germany Sampson Harjo, Creek, France Martin Mitchell, Creek, Pacific...
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