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Wiyot Tribe

A small tribe, whose name Powell adopted for the Wishoskan linguistic family, on the coast of North California about Humboldt Bay. The word seems to be a misapplication of their own name for their Athapascan neighbors, Wishashk. Wiyot, which has sometimes been used as an equivalent, is therefore probably a better term than Wishosk, though not entirely exact.

Big Valley Tribe

Big Valley Tribal members are descendants of the Xa-Ben-Na-Po Band of Pomo Indians that historically have inhabited the Clear Lake area of Lake County, California. In 1851, Big Valley Pomo leaders met with a representative of the President of the United States and all agreed upon a treaty that would allow them to live in peace and harmony with the new settlers coming to the area. This treaty established a reservation with a habitable area of approximately 72 square miles on the South side of Clear Lake which encompassed Mt. Konocti east of Kelsey Creek. The area also included significant water front property just west of an exclusive area known as Buckingham. On July 8, 1852 the United States Senate, in executive session, refused to ratify this and 17 other California Treaties and ordered them filed under an injunction of secrecy which was not removed until January 18, 1905 (53 years later). At the same time Congress passed the Land Claims Act of 1851 which provided that claims to all lands in California be presented within two years of the date of the act. Their leaders were unaware of the need to present their claims and failed to meet the statutory deadline. Deprived of protected legal title to their lands by treaty or formal claim, their ancestors became landless. Years later the various Pomo Bands around the lake were given small parcels of land called Rancheria’s. The Big Valley Pomo Rancheria site was initially established as a Catholic Mission in 1877. In 1914 the U.S. Department of Interior purchased the land for their tribe and in 1936, under the...

Pomo Basket Making

Pomo baskets were used for many practical purposes. The first use of a basket was a baby basket which was well made, and could be transported by placing it on the back and using a net and forehead band, packed at the side, or in the arms. Baskets were also used for food preparation. The weave of this basket was so tight that it would hold water. When water was added the basket material would swell, ensuring that it would continue to hold water. One would wonder how did we cook food without burning the basket. This was done by only cooking food which contained a considerable amount of water, such as soups or mush. To heat and cook the food, stones were heated in a fire and put into the cooking basket which caused the food to boil. For articles of any amount a large sized coarsely woven basket was used. Woven of white willow only, the strands were place far enough apart so that the articles within could be easily seen. This basket was used a great deal in holding fish, small pieces of wood and other coarse articles. The weight was packed on the back and supported by a forehead band. For gathering seed, back packing and conical shaped baskets were used. These baskets were also tightly woven and made with pretty designs. Storage baskets, made to contain a supply of food for winter were tied from the sides and ceilings of the homes or placed on the dirt floor of the dwelling. These were to hold dried fish, acorns, roots, and dried berries. Pomo Basket...

Norridgewock Tribe

A tribe of the Abenaki confederacy, their territory embraced the Kennebec Valley nearly to the river’s mouth. Their closest relationship was with the Penobscot, Arosaguntacook, and Wewenoc Indians.

Indian Tribe Structure

Among the North American Indians a tribe is a body of persons who are bound together by ties of consanguinity and affinity and by certain esoteric ideas or concepts derived from their philosophy concerning the genesis and preservation of the environing cosmos, and who by means of these kinship ties are thus socially, politically, and religiously organized through a variety of ritualistic, governmental, and other institutions, and who dwell together occupying a definite territorial area, and who speak a common language or dialect. From a great variety of circumstances-climatic, topographic, and alimental-the social, political, and religious institutions of the tribes of North American Indians differed in both kind and degree, and were not characterized by a like complexity of structure; but they did agree in the one fundamental principle that the organic units of the social fabric were based on kinship and its interrelations, and not on territorial districts or geographical areas. In order to constitute a more or less permanent body politic or tribe, a people must be in more or less continuous and close contact, and possess a more or less common mental content-a definite sum of knowledge, beliefs, and sentiments which largely supplies the motives for their rites and for the establishment and development of their institutions, and must also exhibit mental endowments and characteristics, that are likewise felt to be common, whose functioning results in unity of purpose, in patriotism, and in what is called common sense. The tribe formed a political and territorial unit which, as has been indicated, was more or less permanently cohesive: its habitations were fixed, its dwellings were relatively permanent,...

I – Florida Indian Villages, Towns and Settlements

A complete listing of all the Indian villages, towns and settlements as listed in Handbook of Americans North of Mexico. Iniahico A principal Apalachee village in 1539, near the site of Tallahassee, Florida. Itafi A district of Florida where one of the Timuquanan dialects was spoken.1 Itara A former village in North Florida, visited by De Soto’s troops in 1539. Ivitachuco A former principal town of the Apalachee, possibly near the present Wacahotee, Florida.FootnotesPareja (ca. 1614), Arte Leng. Timuq., xxi,...

Biography of Bloody Knife

A famous Arikara warrior and chief, who was long in the Government service. His father was a Hunkpapa Sioux and his mother an Arikara. He was born on the Hunkpapa Reservation, North Dakota, but as he approached manhood his mother determined to return to her people and he accompanied her. Prior to the building of the Northern Pacific R. R. the mail for Ft Stevenson, North Dakota, and other Missouri River points, was carried overland from Ft Totten. The high country east of the Missouri was at that time a hunting ground for hostile Sioux who had been driven west from Minnesota after the massacre of 1862, and so often were the mail carriers on this route killed that it became difficult to find anyone to carry the mails. Bloody Knife undertook the task, and traversing the country with Indian caution almost always got the mail through on time. Soon after the establishment of Ft Abraham Lincoln, North Dakato, a number of Arikara scouts were engaged for service at the post, and of these Bloody Knife was the chief. He was with Gen. Stanley on the Yellowstone Expedition of 1873 and took part in the fighting of that trip; he also accompanied Custer to the Black Hills in 1874, and was one of the scouts with Custer and Terry’s expedition in 1876. On the day of the Custer fight he was with the other scouts with Reno’s command, took part in the effort made by them to check the Indians who were charging Reno’s force while crossing Reno Creek, and was killed there, fighting...

Algonquian Indian Bands, Gens and Clans

Many tribes have sub-tribes, bands, gens, clans and phratry.  Often very little information is known or they no longer exist.  We have included them here to provide more information about the tribes. Atchaterakangouen. An Algonquian tribe or band living in the interior of Wisconsin in 1672, near the Mascouten and...

Creek Indian Bands, Gens and Clans

Many tribes have sub-tribes, bands, gens, clans and phratry.  Often very little information is known or they no longer exist.  We have included them here to provide more information about the tribes. Chukotalgi (toad). An extinct Creek clan, closely affiliated with the Toad or Sopaktalgi clan. Fusualgi. The Forest Bird (?) clan of the Creeks Hlahloalgi (fish people). An extinct Creek clan. Hutalgalgi (hútali ‘wind ‘, algi people). A principal Creek clan. Isfanalgi. An extinct clan of the Creeks, said by Gatschet to be seemingly analogous to the Ishpani phratry and clan of the Chickasaw. Itamalgi. A Creek clan. Itchhasualgi (itchhasua ‘beaver’, algi ‘people’). A Creek clan. Gatschet, Creek Migr. Leg., i, 155, 1884. Itchualgi (itchu ‘deer’, algi ‘people’). A Creek...
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